Quantitative and Functional Alterations of Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells Contribute to Immune Tolerance in Ovarian Cancer
ABSTRACT In ovarian cancer, the immune system fails to eradicate established tumors partly due to the induction of immune tolerance within tumor microenvironment. In this study, we investigated the contribution of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) in the establishment of immune tolerance in a cohort of 44 ovarian cancer patients. In the tumor and malignant ascites, CD4(+)CD123(+)BDCA2(+) pDC were the most abundant dendritic cell subset; however, they were profoundly depleted in peripheral blood. The presence of pDC in primary ovarian cancer, but not ascites, was an independent prognostic factor associated with early relapse. Following chemotherapy, we observed a partial restoration of blood pDC levels in patients in complete remission. These findings show preferential recruitment of pDC into tumors where they express a partially mature phenotype that may reflect an in situ activation. Importantly, compared with pDC found in ascites or blood, tumor-associated pDC (TApDC) produced less IFN-α, TNF-α, IL-6, macrophage inflammatory protein-1β, and RANTES in response to toll-like receptor stimulation, and alterations in pDC functions were mainly mediated through tumor-derived TNF-α and TGF-β. Unlike ascites-derived pDC, TApDC induced IL-10 production from allogeneic naive CD4(+) T lymphocytes, suggesting the existence of a paracrine immunosuppressive loop. Taken together, our findings indicate that both local and systemic dysfunction of pDC play a critical role in the progression of ovarian cancer via induction of immune tolerance.
- SourceAvailable from: José Alexandre Marzagão Barbuto[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Dendritic cells (DCs) are essential for the maintenance of homeostasis in the organism, and they do that by modulating lymphocyte priming, expansion, and response patterns according to signals they receive from the environment. The induction of suppressive lymphocytes by DCs is essential to hinder the development of autoimmune diseases but can be reverted against homeostasis when in the context of neoplasia. In this setting, the induction of suppressive or regulatory T cells contributes to the establishment of a state of tolerance towards the tumor, allowing it to grow unchecked by an otherwise functional immune system. Besides affecting its local environment, tumor also has been described as potent sources of anti-inflammatory/suppressive factors, which may act systemically, generating defects in the differentiation and maturation of immune cells, far beyond the immediate vicinity of the tumor mass. Cytokines, as IL-10 and TGF-beta, as well as cell surface molecules like PD-L1 and ICOS seem to be significantly involved in the redirection of DCs towards tolerance induction, and recent data suggest that tumor cells may, indeed, modulate distinct DCs subpopulations through the involvement of these molecules. It is to be expected that the identification of such molecules should provide molecular targets for more effective immunotherapeutic approaches to cancer.Clinical and Developmental Immunology 05/2013; 2013:806025. DOI:10.1155/2013/806025 · 2.93 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Extensive research in the last two decades implemented that the inflammatory cell infiltrate, especially in solid tumors, is a major determinant for patient prognosis. Mononuclear phagocytes, i.e. monocytes/macrophages, dendritic cells and myeloid-derived suppressor cells, constitute the majority of tumor-associated immune cells. Instead of inducing anti-tumor immunity, mononuclear phagocytes are functionally subverted by tumor microenvironmental factors to support each stage of oncogenesis. Although mechanisms how tumors program their inflammatory infiltrate to support tumor development are ill-defined, few master regulators are beginning to emerge. One of them is the inflammatory eicosanoid prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), produced by tumor cells or the infiltrating immune cells. In this review we summarize the impact of PGE(2) on mononuclear phagocytes in inflammation and cancer and discuss potential implications for cancer therapy.Immunobiology 05/2012; 217(12). DOI:10.1016/j.imbio.2012.05.001 · 3.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) is a deadly disease, and little is known about the mechanisms underlying its metastatic progression. Using human specimens and established cell lines, we determined that the G-protein-coupled seven-transmembrane fractalkine receptor (CX(3)CR1) is expressed in primary and metastatic ovarian carcinoma cells. Ovarian carcinoma cells robustly migrated toward CX(3)CL1, a specific ligand of CX(3)CR1, in a CX(3)CR1-dependent manner. Silencing of CX(3)CR1 reduced migration toward human ovarian carcinoma ascites fluid by approximately 70%. Importantly, adhesion of ovarian carcinoma cells to human peritoneal mesothelial cells was dependent on CX(3)CL1/CX(3)CR1 signaling. In addition, CX(3)CL1 was able to induce cellular proliferation. Together, our data suggest that the fractalkine network may function as a major contributor to the progression of EOC, and further attention to its role in the metastasis of this deadly malignancy is warranted.Molecular Cancer Research 11/2011; 10(1):11-24. DOI:10.1158/1541-7786.MCR-11-0256 · 4.50 Impact Factor