As physical therapy (PT) and occupational therapy (OT) educational programs endeavor to foster core values of social responsibility, justice, and altruism in an increasingly global community, the incorporation of local and international service-learning (ISL) into the curriculum is growing. Much of the research has focused on the measurement of student learning, with little written about the impact on the host community. Proponents of global health initiatives are calling for consideration of all stakeholders to ensure ethical practice. This paper explores the current literature related to PT and OT ISL and builds a conceptual framework for ISL course planning. The essential phases in the framework include: 1) pre-experience planning/preparation stage, 2) field immersion experience stage, and 3) postexperience stage. The essential elements are: 1) cultural competency training, 2) communication and coordination with community, 3) comprehensive assessment, and 4) strategic planning. The authors suggest this framework as a practical tool to structure ISL courses with an explicit emphasis on ethical concerns. Additionally, they seek to foster more dialogue and action related to the promotion of ethical practices in ISL in PT and OT education programs.
"They are embedded in every clinical encounter, reasoning process and practice (Carr 2000; Purtilo and Haddad 2002; Sandstrom 2007). Obvious ethical issues in physiotherapy are the handling of the given asymmetry of power (Thornquist 2010), the strive of how to benefit patients (Delany et al. 2010; Praestegaard and Gard 2013) and the inadequacies of professional argumentation when faced with ethical issues (Swisher 2002; Carpenter and Richardson 2008; Greenfield and Jensen 2010; Delany et al. 2010; Lattanzi and Pechak 2011; Delany and Frawley 2012). During the last decades, there have been published political and normative descriptions of professional ethics (The Association of Danish Physiotherapists 2004; WCPT 2011), textbooks seeking to describe normative frameworks for how to identify and handle ethical issues in healthcare practice in general (for instance Aadland 2000; Driver 2007; Beauchamp and Childress 1979; Duncan 2010), and in physiotherapeutic practice in particular (Purtilo and Haddad 2002; Gabard and Martin 2003; Swisher and Page 2005; Purtilo et al. 2005). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite an increasingly growth of professional guidelines, textbooks and research about ethics in health care, awareness about ethics in Danish physiotherapy private practice seen vague. This article explores how physiotherapists in Danish private practice, from an ethical perspective, perceive to practice physiotherapy. The empirical data consists of interviews with twenty-one physiotherapists. The interviews are analysed from a hermeneutic approach, inspired by Ricoeur's textual interpretation of distanciation. The analysis follows three phases: naïve reading, structural analysis and comprehensive analysis. Four main themes are constructed: Beneficence as the driving force; Disciplining the patient through the course of physiotherapy; Balancing between being a trustworthy professional and a businessperson; The dream of a code of practice. Private practice physiotherapy is embedded in a structural frame directed by both political and economical conditions that shape the conditions for practicing physiotherapy. It means that beneficence in practice is a balance between the patient, the physiotherapists themselves and the business. Beneficence towards the patient is expressed as an implicit demand. Physiotherapeutic practice is expressed as being an integration of professionalism and personality which implies that the physiotherapists also have to benefit themselves. Private practice seems to be driven by a paternalistic approach towards the patient, where disciplining the patient is a crucial element of practice, in order to optimise profit. Physiotherapists wish for a more beneficent practice in the future by aiming at bridging 'to be' and 'ought to be'.
Medicine Health Care and Philosophy 11/2012; 16(3). DOI:10.1007/s11019-012-9446-0 · 0.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Various models of interprofessional education, including service-learning, are used to teach students how to be effective members of healthcare teams. The purpose of this study was to examine pilot data related to the impact of an elective one-credit global health course with an international service-learning experience (ISL) on the student participants. An interdisciplinary team of 3 faculty accompanied 4 students representing occupational therapy, physical therapy, and speech-language pathology programs for an 8-day ISL experience. Students responded to faculty-developed reflection questions pre-travel, during travel, and 2-weeks and 4-months post travel. Content analysis was used to analyze themes that emerged from the students' written reflections. Three major themes emerged: collaboration, satisfaction, and self-discovery. The most prominent theme was related to interprofessional collaboration.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: International service by students is gaining greater attention at colleges
and universities around the world. Some research has examined
the effects of international service for students, but relatively few
studies have examined outcomes for host communities and sponsoring
organizations, including colleges and universities. Beginning
with an examination of theoretical and empirical research from the
fields of international volunteerism, international service-learning,
and international study abroad, this article proposes a framework
for inquiry on international service programs. It suggests that differences
in outcomes for students, host communities, and home
colleges and universities are the result of variations in individual and
institutional characteristics and service activities. Finally, the article
considers implications for future research, including hypotheses and
research designs to test differences across programs and educational
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