A conceptual framework for international service-learning course planning: Promoting a foundation for ethical practice in the physical therapy and occupational therapy professions

Physical Therapy Program, University of Texas at El Paso, 1101 North Campbell, El Paso, TX 79902, USA.
Journal of allied health 06/2011; 40(2):103-9.
Source: PubMed


As physical therapy (PT) and occupational therapy (OT) educational programs endeavor to foster core values of social responsibility, justice, and altruism in an increasingly global community, the incorporation of local and international service-learning (ISL) into the curriculum is growing. Much of the research has focused on the measurement of student learning, with little written about the impact on the host community. Proponents of global health initiatives are calling for consideration of all stakeholders to ensure ethical practice. This paper explores the current literature related to PT and OT ISL and builds a conceptual framework for ISL course planning. The essential phases in the framework include: 1) pre-experience planning/preparation stage, 2) field immersion experience stage, and 3) postexperience stage. The essential elements are: 1) cultural competency training, 2) communication and coordination with community, 3) comprehensive assessment, and 4) strategic planning. The authors suggest this framework as a practical tool to structure ISL courses with an explicit emphasis on ethical concerns. Additionally, they seek to foster more dialogue and action related to the promotion of ethical practices in ISL in PT and OT education programs.

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    • "Drawing from work in various health professions, Lattanzi and Pechak (2011) presented a framework for the development and implementation of fieldwork experiences in occupational and physical therapy that includes cultural competence training, communication and coordination with community, comprehensive assessment and strategic planning. The WEIGHT Guidelines (Crump et al. (2010)) provide a useful set of recommendations that define roles and responsibilities for all partners, encourage structured programmes and formalized communication and aim to address ethical concerns in IFPs. "
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    ABSTRACT: International fieldwork placements (IFPs) have become very popular among healthcare students including those in occupational therapy programmes. There are many potential benefits that can accrue to the students; however, there are critiques of international placements especially for students going to underserviced areas. The purpose of this paper is to provide a case study/model programme description that critically reflects on six partnerships in three underserviced countries that provide IFPs to students from one Canadian university. The personal opinions of each partner were collected verbally, by email and by a qualitative review of the past 10 years of partnership interaction. Some of the benefits reported by partners include the development of an increased number of sustainable long-term quality placements, orientation materials, student supports and the involvement of university faculty in research and capacity building projects in partner countries. A number of challenges were identified including the need for an expanded formal agreement, more bilateral feedback and examination of supervision models. This paper examines a limited number of partnerships with only one Canadian partner. Direct input of students is not utilized, although feedback given to co-authors by students is reflected. More research is needed on perspectives of partners in IFPs, impact of IFPs on clinical practice in student's home countries, impact of IFPS on underserviced areas and effective strategies for debriefing. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Occupational Therapy International 06/2013; 20(2):85-93. DOI:10.1002/oti.1352 · 0.78 Impact Factor
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    • "They are embedded in every clinical encounter, reasoning process and practice (Carr 2000; Purtilo and Haddad 2002; Sandstrom 2007). Obvious ethical issues in physiotherapy are the handling of the given asymmetry of power (Thornquist 2010), the strive of how to benefit patients (Delany et al. 2010; Praestegaard and Gard 2013) and the inadequacies of professional argumentation when faced with ethical issues (Swisher 2002; Carpenter and Richardson 2008; Greenfield and Jensen 2010; Delany et al. 2010; Lattanzi and Pechak 2011; Delany and Frawley 2012). During the last decades, there have been published political and normative descriptions of professional ethics (The Association of Danish Physiotherapists 2004; WCPT 2011), textbooks seeking to describe normative frameworks for how to identify and handle ethical issues in healthcare practice in general (for instance Aadland 2000; Driver 2007; Beauchamp and Childress 1979; Duncan 2010), and in physiotherapeutic practice in particular (Purtilo and Haddad 2002; Gabard and Martin 2003; Swisher and Page 2005; Purtilo et al. 2005). "
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    ABSTRACT: Despite an increasingly growth of professional guidelines, textbooks and research about ethics in health care, awareness about ethics in Danish physiotherapy private practice seen vague. This article explores how physiotherapists in Danish private practice, from an ethical perspective, perceive to practice physiotherapy. The empirical data consists of interviews with twenty-one physiotherapists. The interviews are analysed from a hermeneutic approach, inspired by Ricoeur's textual interpretation of distanciation. The analysis follows three phases: naïve reading, structural analysis and comprehensive analysis. Four main themes are constructed: Beneficence as the driving force; Disciplining the patient through the course of physiotherapy; Balancing between being a trustworthy professional and a businessperson; The dream of a code of practice. Private practice physiotherapy is embedded in a structural frame directed by both political and economical conditions that shape the conditions for practicing physiotherapy. It means that beneficence in practice is a balance between the patient, the physiotherapists themselves and the business. Beneficence towards the patient is expressed as an implicit demand. Physiotherapeutic practice is expressed as being an integration of professionalism and personality which implies that the physiotherapists also have to benefit themselves. Private practice seems to be driven by a paternalistic approach towards the patient, where disciplining the patient is a crucial element of practice, in order to optimise profit. Physiotherapists wish for a more beneficent practice in the future by aiming at bridging 'to be' and 'ought to be'.
    Medicine Health Care and Philosophy 11/2012; 16(3). DOI:10.1007/s11019-012-9446-0 · 0.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: International service by students is gaining greater attention at colleges and universities around the world. Some research has examined the effects of international service for students, but relatively few studies have examined outcomes for host communities and sponsoring organizations, including colleges and universities. Beginning with an examination of theoretical and empirical research from the fields of international volunteerism, international service-learning, and international study abroad, this article proposes a framework for inquiry on international service programs. It suggests that differences in outcomes for students, host communities, and home colleges and universities are the result of variations in individual and institutional characteristics and service activities. Finally, the article considers implications for future research, including hypotheses and research designs to test differences across programs and educational institutions.
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