Amyloid-beta-Induced Mitochondrial Dysfunction Impairs the Autophagic Lysosomal Pathway in a Tubulin Dependent Pathway
ABSTRACT Mitochondrial dysfunction is observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain and peripheral tissues. Amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides are known to interact with several proteins inside the mitochondria, leading to mitochondrial dysfunction. Recent studies have provided substantial evidence that mitochondria serve as direct targets for Aβ-mediated neuronal toxicity. The observations that Aβ progressively accumulates in cortical mitochondria from AD patients and transgenic AD type mouse models suggest the role of mitochondrial Aβ in the pathogenesis or development of AD. Herein, we studied the downstream signaling pathways induced by Aβ-mediated mitochondrial metabolism alterations and its consequences on cellular fate. We found that Aβ peptides induced an increase in NAD+levels and a decrease in ATP levels, which was related with decreases in acetylated tubulin levels and tau hyperphosphorylation. As a result of microtubule disruption, alterations in macroautophagy, like a decrease in autophagossome degradation and altered cellular distribution of LC3B, were found. Taxol, a microtubule stabilizer drug, was able to restore microtubule network and to prevent cell death induced by Aβ peptides. Our data shows for the first time that mitochondrial and cytosolic Aβ oligomers were significantly reduced upon microtubule dynamics re-establishment. These observations point out that an intervention at a microtubule level may be effective as a disease modifying therapy.
SourceAvailable from: Paula I Moreira[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Autophagy is a housekeeping process responsible for the bulk degradation of misfolded protein aggregates and damaged organelles through the lysosomal machinery. Given its key role as a cellular quality control mechanism, autophagy is now a focus of intense scrutiny in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The hallmarks of this devastating neurodegenerative disease are the accumulation of misfolded amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide and hyperphosphorylated tau protein and neuronal loss, which are accompanied by mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, suggesting that faulty autophagy is a contributing factor to AD pathology. Indeed, the AD brain is characterized by a massive accumulation of autophagic vacuoles within large swellings along dystrophic neurites and defects at different steps of the autophagic-lysosomal pathway. In this sense, this review provides an overview on the role of autophagy on Aβ metabolism, tau processing and clearance, and the contribution of ER-phagy and mitophagy to AD pathology. From a therapeutic perspective, this review also intends to clarify whether, when, and how autophagy can be targeted to efficaciously counteract AD-related symptomatic and neuropathological features.DNA and Cell Biology 02/2015; DOI:10.1089/dna.2014.2757 · 1.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abnormal accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide in the brain is a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In addition to neurotoxic effects, Aβ also damages brain endothelial cells (ECs) and may thus contribute to the degeneration of cerebral vasculature, which has been proposed as an early pathogenic event in the course of AD and is able to trigger and/or potentiate the neurodegenerative process and cognitive decline. However, the mechanisms underlying Aβ-induced endothelial dysfunction are not completely understood. Here we hypothesized that Aβ impairs protein quality control mechanisms both in the secretory pathway and in the cytosol in brain ECs, leading cells to death. In rat brain RBE4 cells, we demonstrated that Aβ1-40 induces the failure of the ER stress-adaptive unfolded protein response (UPR), deregulates the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) decreasing overall proteasome activity with accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins and impairs the autophagic protein degradation pathway due to failure in the autophagic flux, which culminates in cell demise. In conclusion, Aβ deregulates proteostasis in brain ECs and, as a consequence, these cells die by apoptosis.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 02/2014; 1843(6). DOI:10.1016/j.bbamcr.2014.02.016 · 4.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Impaired proteostasis is one of the main features of all amyloid diseases, which are associated with the formation of insoluble aggregates from amyloidogenic proteins. The aggregation process can be caused by overproduction or poor clearance of these proteins. However, numerous reports suggest that amyloid oligomers are the most toxic species, rather than insoluble fibrillar material, in Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Prion diseases, among others. Although the exact protein that aggregates varies between amyloid disorders, they all share common structural features that can be used as therapeutic targets. In this review, we focus on therapeutic approaches against shared features of toxic oligomeric structures and future directions.Biochemical pharmacology 01/2014; 88(4). DOI:10.1016/j.bcp.2013.12.023 · 4.65 Impact Factor