Amyloid-β-induced mitochondrial dysfunction impairs the autophagic lysosomal pathway in a tubulin dependent pathway.
ABSTRACT Mitochondrial dysfunction is observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain and peripheral tissues. Amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides are known to interact with several proteins inside the mitochondria, leading to mitochondrial dysfunction. Recent studies have provided substantial evidence that mitochondria serve as direct targets for Aβ-mediated neuronal toxicity. The observations that Aβ progressively accumulates in cortical mitochondria from AD patients and transgenic AD type mouse models suggest the role of mitochondrial Aβ in the pathogenesis or development of AD. Herein, we studied the downstream signaling pathways induced by Aβ-mediated mitochondrial metabolism alterations and its consequences on cellular fate. We found that Aβ peptides induced an increase in NAD+levels and a decrease in ATP levels, which was related with decreases in acetylated tubulin levels and tau hyperphosphorylation. As a result of microtubule disruption, alterations in macroautophagy, like a decrease in autophagossome degradation and altered cellular distribution of LC3B, were found. Taxol, a microtubule stabilizer drug, was able to restore microtubule network and to prevent cell death induced by Aβ peptides. Our data shows for the first time that mitochondrial and cytosolic Aβ oligomers were significantly reduced upon microtubule dynamics re-establishment. These observations point out that an intervention at a microtubule level may be effective as a disease modifying therapy.
- SourceAvailable from: PubMed Central[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Tropomyosin-related kinase A (TrkA) is a receptor-type protein tyrosine kinase and exploits pleiotypic roles via NGF-dependent or NGF-independent mechanisms in various cell types. Here we showed that the inhibition of TrkA activity by GW441756 resulted in the suppression of tyrosine phosphorylation of cellular proteins including ERK and JNK. To find novel targets associated with TrkA-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation signaling pathways, we investigated GW441756 effects on TrkA-dependent targets in SK-N-MC neuroblastoma cells by proteomic analysis. The major TrkA-dependent protein spots controlled by GW441756 were determined by PDQuest image analysis, identified by MALDI-TOF MS and MALDI-TOF/TOF MS/MS, and verified by 2-DE/Western blot analysis. Thus, we found that most of the identified protein spots were modified forms in a normal condition, and their modifications were regulated by TrkA activity. Especially, our results demonstrated that the modifications of α-tubulin and hnRNP C1/C2 were significantly up-regulated by TrkA, whereas α-enolase modification was down-regulated by TrkA, and it was suppressed by GW441756, indicating that TrkA activity is required for their modifications. Taken together, we suggest here that the major novel TrkA-dependent targets such as α-tubulin, hnRNP C1/C2 and α-enolase could play an essential role in TrkA-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation signaling pathways via regulation of their post-translational modifications.Proteomics 01/2013; · 4.43 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Regulation of microtubule dynamics in neurons is critical, as defects in the microtubule-based transport of axonal organelles lead to neurodegenerative disease. The microtubule motor cytoplasmic dynein and its partner complex dynactin drive retrograde transport from the distal axon. We have recently shown that the p150(Glued) subunit of dynactin promotes the initiation of dynein-driven cargo motility from the microtubule plus-end. Because plus end-localized microtubule-associated proteins like p150(Glued) may also modulate the dynamics of microtubules, we hypothesized that p150(Glued) might promote cargo initiation by stabilizing the microtubule track. Here, we demonstrate in vitro using assembly assays and TIRF microscopy, and in primary neurons using live-cell imaging, that p150(Glued) is a potent anti-catastrophe factor for microtubules. p150(Glued) alters microtubule dynamics by binding both to microtubules and to tubulin dimers; both the N-terminal CAP-Gly and basic domains of p150(Glued) are required in tandem for this activity. p150(Glued) is alternatively spliced in vivo, with the full-length isoform including these two domains expressed primarily in neurons. Accordingly, we find that RNAi of p150(Glued) in nonpolarized cells does not alter microtubule dynamics, while depletion of p150(Glued) in neurons leads to a dramatic increase in microtubule catastrophe. Strikingly, a mutation in p150(Glued) causal for the lethal neurodegenerative disorder Perry syndrome abrogates this anti-catastrophe activity. Thus, we find that dynactin has multiple functions in neurons, both activating dynein-mediated retrograde axonal transport and enhancing microtubule stability through a novel anti-catastrophe mechanism regulated by tissue-specific isoform expression; disruption of either or both of these functions may contribute to neurodegenerative disease.PLoS Biology 07/2013; 11(7):e1001611. · 12.69 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cytoskeletal dysfunction has been proposed during the last decade as one of the main mechanisms involved in the aetiology of several neurodegenerative diseases. Microtubules are basic elements of the cytoskeleton and the dysregulation of microtubule stability has been demonstrated to be causative for axonal transport impairment, synaptic contact degeneration, impaired neuronal function leading finally to neuronal loss. Several pathways are implicated in the microtubule assembly/disassembly process. Emerging evidence is focusing on Notch as a microtubule dynamics regulator. We demonstrated that activation of Notch signalling results in increased microtubule stability and changes in axonal morphology and branching. By contrast, Notch inhibition leads to an increase in cytoskeleton plasticity with intense neurite remodelling. Until now, several microtubule-binding compounds have been tested and the results have provided proof of concept that microtubule-binding agents or compounds with the ability to stabilize microtubules may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, based on its key role in cytoskeletal dynamics modulation, we propose Notch as a new potential target for microtubule stabilization.Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders 11/2013; 6(6):375-85.