Invasion of Cryptococcus neoformans into human brain microvascular endothelial cells is mediated through the lipid rafts-endocytic pathway via the dual specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinase 3 (DYRK3).
ABSTRACT Cryptococcus neoformans is a neurotropic fungal pathogen, which provokes the onset of devastating meningoencephalitis. We used human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) as the in vitro model to investigate how C. neoformans traverses across the blood-brain barrier. In this study, we present several lines of evidence indicating that C. neoformans invasion is mediated through the endocytic pathway via lipid rafts. Human CD44 molecules from lipid rafts can directly interact with hyaluronic acid, the C. neoformans ligand. Bikunin, which perturbs CD44 function in the lipid raft, can block C. neoformans adhesion and invasion of HBMEC. The lipid raft marker, ganglioside GM1, co-localizes with CD44 on the plasma membrane, and C. neoformans cells can adhere to the host cell in areas where GM1 is enriched. These findings suggest that C. neoformans entry takes place on the lipid rafts. Upon C. neoformans engagement, GM1 is internalized through vesicular structures to the nuclear membrane. This endocytic redistribution process is abolished by cytochalasin D, nocodazole, or anti-DYRK3 (dual specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation-regulated kinase 3) siRNA. Concomitantly, the knockdown of DYRK3 significantly reduces C. neoformans invasion across the HBMEC monolayer in vitro. Our data demonstrate that the lipid raft-dependent endocytosis process mediates C. neoformans internalization into HBMEC and that the CD44 protein of the hosts, cytoskeleton, and intracellular kinase-DYRK3 are involved in this process.
Article: Cryptococcal yeast cells invade the central nervous system via transcellular penetration of the blood-brain barrier.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cryptococcal meningoencephalitis develops as a result of hematogenous dissemination of inhaled Cryptococcus neoformans from the lung to the brain. The mechanism(s) by which C. neoformans crosses the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a key unresolved issue in cryptococcosis. We used both an in vivo mouse model and an in vitro model of the human BBB to investigate the cryptococcal association with and traversal of the BBB. Exposure of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) to C. neoformans triggered the formation of microvillus-like membrane protrusions within 15 to 30 min. Yeast cells of C. neoformans adhered to and were internalized by the HBMEC, and they crossed the HBMEC monolayers via a transcellular pathway without affecting the monolayer integrity. The histopathology of mouse brains obtained after intravenous injection of C. neoformans showed that the yeast cells either were associated with endothelial cells or escaped from the brain capillary vessels into the neuropil by 3 h. C. neoformans was found in the brain parenchyma away from the vessels by 22 h. Association of C. neoformans with the choroid plexus, however, was not detected during up to 10 days of observation. Our findings indicate that C. neoformans cells invade the central nervous system by transcellular crossing of the endothelium of the BBB.Infection and Immunity 10/2004; 72(9):4985-95. · 4.16 Impact Factor
Article: Roles of protein kinase C and actin-binding protein 280 in the regulation of intracellular trafficking of dopamine D3 receptor.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: D(3) dopamine receptor (D(3)R) is expressed mainly in parts of the brain that control the emotional behaviors. It is believed that the improper regulation of D(3)R is involved in the etiology of schizophrenia. Desensitization of D(3)R is weakly associated with G protein-coupled receptor kinase (GRK)/beta-arrestin-directed internalization. This suggests that there might be an alternative pathway that regulates D(3)R signaling. This report shows that D(3)R undergoes robust protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent sequestration that is accompanied by receptor phosphorylation and the desensitization of signaling. PKC-dependent D(3)R sequestration, which was enhanced by PKC-beta or -delta, was dynamin dependent but independent of GRK, beta-arrestin, or caveolin 1. Site-directed mutagenesis of all possible phosphorylation sites within the intracellular loops of D(3)R identified serine residues at positions 229 and 257 as the critical amino acids responsible for phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)-induced D(3)R phosphorylation, sequestration, and desensitization. In addition, the LxxY endocytosis motif, which is located between residues 252 and 255, was found to play accommodating roles for PMA-induced D(3)R sequestration. A continuous interaction with the actin-binding protein 280 (filamin A), which was previously known to interact with D(3)R, is required for PMA-induced D(3)R sequestration. In conclusion, the PKC-dependent but GRK-/beta-arrestin-independent phosphorylation of D(3)R is the main pathway responsible for the sequestration and desensitization of D(3)R. Filamin A is essential for both the efficient signaling and sequestration of D(3)R.Molecular Endocrinology 10/2007; 21(9):2242-54. · 4.54 Impact Factor
Article: Invasion of Cryptococcus neoformans into human brain microvascular endothelial cells requires protein kinase C-alpha activation.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans has a predilection for the central nervous system causing devastating meningoencephalitis. Traversal of C. neoformans across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a crucial step in the pathogenesis of C. neoformans. Our previous studies have shown that the CPS1 gene is required for C. neoformans adherence to the surface protein CD44 of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC), which constitute the BBB. In this report, we demonstrated that C. neoformans invasion of HBMEC was blocked in the presence of G109203X, a protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, and by overexpression of a dominant-negative form of PKCalpha in HBMEC. During C. neoformans infection, phosphorylation of PKCalpha was induced and the PKC enzymatic activity was detected in the HBMEC membrane fraction. Our results suggested that the PKCalpha isoform might play a crucial role during C. neoformans invasion. Immunofluorescence microscopic images showed that induced phospho-PKCalpha colocalized with beta-actin on the membrane of HBMEC. In addition, cytochalasin D (an F-filament-disrupting agent) inhibited fungus invasion into HBMEC in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, blockage of PKCalpha function attenuated actin filament activity during C. neoformans invasion. These results suggest a significant role of PKCalpha and downstream actin filament activity during the fungal invasion into HBMEC.Cellular Microbiology 07/2008; 10(9):1854-65. · 5.46 Impact Factor