A role for Notch signaling in trophoblast endovascular invasion and in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia.
ABSTRACT Placental trophoblasts (TBs) invade and remodel uterine vessels with an arterial bias. This process, which involves vascular mimicry, re-routes maternal blood to the placenta, but fails in pre-eclampsia. We investigated Notch family members in both contexts, as they play important roles in arterial differentiation/function. Immunoanalyses of tissue sections showed step-wise modulation of Notch receptors/ligands during human TB invasion. Inhibition of Notch signaling reduced invasion of cultured human TBs and expression of the arterial marker EFNB2. In mouse placentas, Notch activity was highest in endovascular TBs. Conditional deletion of Notch2, the only receptor upregulated during mouse TB invasion, reduced arterial invasion, the size of maternal blood canals by 30-40% and placental perfusion by 23%. By E11.5, there was litter-wide lethality in proportion to the number of mutant offspring. In pre-eclampsia, expression of the Notch ligand JAG1 was absent in perivascular and endovascular TBs. We conclude that Notch signaling is crucial for TB vascular invasion.
- SourceAvailable from: Sophie Mouillet-Richard[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Based on its developmental pattern of expression, early studies suggested the implication of the mammalian Prion protein PrP, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored ubiquitously expressed and evolutionary conserved glycoprotein encoded by the Prnp gene, in early embryogenesis. However, gene invalidation in several species did not result in obvious developmental abnormalities and it was only recently that it was associated in mice with intra-uterine growth retardation and placental dysfunction. A proposed explanation for this lack of easily detectable developmental-related phenotype is the existence in the genome of one or more gene (s) able to compensate for the absence of PrP. Indeed, two other members of the Prnp gene family have been recently described, Doppel and Shadoo, and the consequences of their invalidation alongside that of PrP tested in mice. No embryonic defect was observed in mice depleted for Doppel and PrP. Interestingly, the co-invalidation of PrP and Shadoo in two independent studies led to apparently conflicting observations, with no apparent consequences in one report and the observation of a developmental defect of the ectoplacental cone that leads to early embryonic lethality in the other. This short review aims at summarizing these recent, apparently conflicting data highlighting the related biological questions and associated implications in terms of animal and human health.Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology 08/2014; 2:35.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The relationship between phenotypic variation arising through individual development and phenotypic variation arising through diversification of species has long been a central question in evolutionary biology. Among humans, reduced placental invasion into endometrial tissues is associated with diseases of pregnancy, especially preeclampsia, and reduced placental invasiveness has also evolved, convergently, in at least ten lineages of eutherian mammals. We tested the hypothesis that a common genetic basis underlies both reduced placental invasion arising through a developmental process in human placental disease, and reduced placental invasion found as a derived trait in the diversification of Euarchontoglires (rodents, lagomorphs, tree shrews, colugos and primates). Based on whole-genome analyses across eighteen taxa, we identified 1,254 genes as having evolved adaptively across all three lineages exhibiting independent evolutionary transitions toward reduced placental invasion. These genes showed strong evidence of enrichment for associations with preeclampsia, based on genetic association studies, gene expression analyses, and gene ontology. We further used in-silico prediction to identify a subset of 199 genes that are likely targets of natural selection during transitions in placental invasiveness and which are predicted to also underlie human placental disorders. Our results indicate that abnormal ontogenies can recapitulate major phylogenetic shifts in mammalian evolution, identify new candidate genes for involvement in preeclampsia, imply that study of species with less-invasive placentation will provide useful insights into the regulation of placental invasion and preeclampsia, and recommend a novel comparative functional-evolutionary approach to the study of genetically-based human disease and mammalian diversification.Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society B Biological Sciences 03/2015; · 6.31 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Decidualization, the transformation of the human uterine mucosa into the endometrium of pregnancy, is critical for successful implantation and embryonic development. However, key regulatory factors controlling differentiation of uterine stromal cells into hormone-secreting decidual cells have not been fully elucidated. Hence, we herein investigated the role of the Notch signaling pathway in human decidual stromal cells (HDSC) isolated from early pregnancy samples. Immunofluorescence of first trimester decidual tissues revealed expression of Notch2 receptor and its putative, membrane-anchored interaction partners Jagged1, Delta-like (DLL) 1 and DLL4 in stromal cells whereas other Notch receptors and ligands were absent from these cells. During in vitro differentiation with estrogen/progesterone (E2P4) and/or cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) HDSC constitutively expressed Notch2 and weakly downregulated Jagged1 mRNA and protein, measured by quantitative PCR (qPCR) and Western blotting, respectively. However, increased levels of DLL1 and DLL4 were observed in the decidualizing cultures. Transfection of a Notch luciferase reporter and qPCR of the Notch target gene hairy and enhancer of split 1 (HES1) revealed an induction of canonical Notch activity during in vitro differentiation. In contrast, treatment of HDSC with a chemical Notch/γ-secretase inhibitor decreased cAMP/E2P4-stimulated Notch luciferase activity, HES1 transcript levels and mRNA expression of the decidual marker genes prolactin (PRL) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1 (IGFBP1). Similarly, siRNA-mediated gene silencing or antibody-mediated blocking of Notch2 diminished HES1, PRL and IGFBP1 mRNA levels as well as secreted PRL protein. In summary, the data suggest that canonical, Notch2-dependent signaling plays a role in human decidualization.PLoS ONE 11/2014; 9(11):e112723. · 3.53 Impact Factor