A role for Notch signaling in trophoblast endovascular invasion and in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia
ABSTRACT Placental trophoblasts (TBs) invade and remodel uterine vessels with an arterial bias. This process, which involves vascular mimicry, re-routes maternal blood to the placenta, but fails in pre-eclampsia. We investigated Notch family members in both contexts, as they play important roles in arterial differentiation/function. Immunoanalyses of tissue sections showed step-wise modulation of Notch receptors/ligands during human TB invasion. Inhibition of Notch signaling reduced invasion of cultured human TBs and expression of the arterial marker EFNB2. In mouse placentas, Notch activity was highest in endovascular TBs. Conditional deletion of Notch2, the only receptor upregulated during mouse TB invasion, reduced arterial invasion, the size of maternal blood canals by 30-40% and placental perfusion by 23%. By E11.5, there was litter-wide lethality in proportion to the number of mutant offspring. In pre-eclampsia, expression of the Notch ligand JAG1 was absent in perivascular and endovascular TBs. We conclude that Notch signaling is crucial for TB vascular invasion.
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ABSTRACT: Placental development is a highly regulated process requiring signals from both fetal and maternal uterine compartments. Within this complex system, trophoblasts, placental cells of epithelial lineage, form the maternal-fetal interface controlling nutrient, gas and waste exchange. The commitment of progenitor villous cytotrophoblasts to differentiate into diverse trophoblast subsets is a fundamental process in placental development. Differentiation of trophoblasts into invasive stromal- and vascular-remodeling subtypes is essential for uterine arterial remodeling and placental function. Inadequate placentation, characterized by defects in trophoblast differentiation, may underlie the earliest cellular events driving pregnancy disorders such as preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction. Molecularly, invasive trophoblasts acquire characteristics defined by profound alterations in cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion, cytoskeletal reorganization and production of proteolytic factors. To date, most studies have investigated the importance of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their ability to efficiently remodel components of the extracellular matrix (ECM). However, it is now becoming clear that besides MMPs, other related proteases regulate trophoblast invasion via mechanisms other than ECM turnover. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge on the regulation of trophoblast invasion by members of the metzincin family of metalloproteinases. Specifically, we will discuss the emerging roles that A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinases (ADAMs) play in placental development, with a particular focus on the ADAM subtype, ADAM12. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.Placenta 12/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.placenta.2014.12.016 · 3.29 Impact Factor
Molecular Human Reproduction 03/2012; 19(4):237-249. DOI:10.1093/molehr/gas061 · 3.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The maternal blood space in the mouse placenta is lined not by endothelial cells but rather by various subtypes of trophoblast giant cells (TGCs), defined by their location and different patterns of gene expression. While TGCs invade the spiral arteries to displace the maternal endothelium, the rest of the vascular space is created de novo but the mechanisms are not well understood. We cultured mouse trophoblast stem (TS) cells in suspension and found that they readily form spheroids (trophospheres). Compared to cells grown in monolayer, differentiating trophospheres showed accelerated expression of TGC-specific genes. Morphological and gene expression studies showed that cavities form within the trophospheres that are primarily lined by Prl3d1/Pl1α-positive cells analogous to parietal-TGCs (P-TGCs) which line the maternal venous blood within the placenta. Lumen formation in trophospheres and in vivo was associated with cell polarization including CD34 sialomucin deposition on the apical side and cytoskeletal rearrangement. While P-TGCs preferentially formed in trophospheres at atmospheric oxygen levels (19%), decreasing oxygen to 3% shifted differentiation towards Ctsq-positive sinusoidal and/or channel TGCs. These studies show that trophoblast cells have the intrinsic ability to form vascular channels in ways analogous to endothelial cells. The trophosphere system will be valuable for assessing mechanisms that regulate specification of different TGC subtypes and their morphogenesis into vascular spaces. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.Developmental Biology 12/2014; 398(1). DOI:10.1016/j.ydbio.2014.11.023 · 3.64 Impact Factor