The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) to pregnancy-related complications including gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), preterm birth (PTB), intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), pre-eclampsia, antepartum haemorrhage and cholestasis. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample was queried for all pregnancy-related discharges, pregnancy complications and viral hepatitis from 1995 to 2005. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between HBV, HCV, HBV + HCV and pregnancy-related complications including GDM, PTB, IUGR, pre-eclampsia, antepartum haemorrhage, cholestasis and caesarean delivery. Model covariates included maternal age, race, insurance status, substance use and medical complications including liver complication, hypertension, HIV, anaemia, thrombocytopenia and sexually transmitted infections. Of 297 664 pregnant women data available for analysis, 1446 had a coded diagnosis of HBV, HCV or both. High-risk behaviours, such as smoking, alcohol and substance use were higher in women with either HBV or HCV. Women with HBV had an increased risk for PTB (aOR 1.65, CI [1.3, 2.0]) but a decreased risk for caesarean delivery (aOR 0.686, CI [0.53, 0.88]). Individuals with HCV had an increased risk for GDM (aOR 1.6, CI [1.0, 2.6]). Individuals with both HBV and HCV co-infection had an increased risk for antepartum haemorrhage (aOR 2.82, CI [1.1, 7.2]). There was no association of viral hepatitis with IUGR or pre-eclampsia. Women with hepatitis have an increased risk for complications during pregnancy. Research to determine the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of counselling patients about potential risks for adverse outcomes is warranted.
"Although a few studies have explored the impact of this asymptomatic infection on pregnancy outcomes     , the findings from the different studies were not consistent. For example, Reddick et al.  demonstrated an increased risk of preterm birth as well as prepartum hemorrhage with HBV infection, whereas Lao et al.  did not find such a relationship. Moreover, a significantly increased risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and of fetal macrosomia has also been reported   . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
To compare pregnancy outcomes of women with chronic HBV infection with those of HBV-negative women.
A retrospective case–control study was undertaken to analyze singleton pregnancies of women without medical/surgical disease and with known HBsAg status. Pregnancy outcome measures were compared among the control group, women with positive HBsAg status (case group), and those with positive HBeAg status.
Among 26 350 enrolled pregnant women, 21 812 in the control group and 1446 in the case group were compared. Only the proportion of preterm births was significantly higher among pregnancies with positive HBsAg status (RR 1.013 [95% CI, 1.001–1.025]). Among women with positive HBsAg status who had been screened for HBeAg, GDM was significantly higher among women with positive HBeAg status (RR 1.434 [95% CI, 0.999–2.057]). Preterm births and low birth weight were also significantly higher among women with positive HBeAg status (RR 1.250 [95% CI, 1.000–1.563] and 1.258 [95% CI, 1.053–1.505], respectively).
Chronic carriers of HBV had a minimally increased risk of preterm birth and low birth weight but the risk was more pronounced in women with positive HBeAg status. Women with positive HBeAg status also had an increased risk of GDM.
International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics 08/2014; 126(2). DOI:10.1016/j.ijgo.2014.02.019 · 1.54 Impact Factor
"The fourteen studies included in the present analysis were published between 1999 and 2013 (Table 1). Two studies each were conducted in Thailand [8,9] and Iran [10,11], one in Germany , the United States , and mainland China , and the other seven in Hong Kong, China [3-7,16,17]. All fourteen were hospital-based retrospective cohort studies. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection during pregnancy is associated with insulin resistance. A meta-analytic technique was used to quantify the evidence of an association between CHB infection and the risk of gestational diabetes (GDM) among pregnant women.
We searched PubMed for studies up to September 5th 2013. Additional studies were obtained from other sources. We selected studies using a cohort-study design and reported a quantitative association between CHB infection during pregnancy and risk of GDM. A total of 280 articles were identified, of which fourteen publications involving 439,514 subjects met the inclusion criteria. A sequential algorithm was used to reduce between-study heterogeneity, and further meta-analysis was conducted using a random-effects model.
Ten out of the fourteen studies were highly homogeneous, indicating an association of 1.11 [the adjusted odds ratio, 95% confidence interval 0.96 - 1.28] between CHB infection during pregnancy and the risk of developing GDM. The heterogeneity of the additional four studies may be due to selection bias or possible aetiological differences for special subsets of pregnant women.
These results indicate that CHB infection during pregnancy is not associated with an increased risk of developing GDM among pregnant women except those from Iran.
BMC Research Notes 03/2014; 7(1):139. DOI:10.1186/1756-0500-7-139
"Developing countries have a high incidence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections [1,2], a fact that might partially be explained by non-adherence to known universal infection control procedures . Women with hepatitis have an increased risk for complications during pregnancy . In Yemen, previous reports indicate that hepatitis B is hyperendemic and infection with HBV and HCV is an important cause of chronic liver disease . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Screening for Hepatitis B and C during pregnancy may help to decide on appropriate antiviral therapy and the institution of steps to minimize vertical transmission to the newborn infants.
A cross-sectional study was conducted during November–December 2011 to investigate the seroprevalence and associated risk factors for markers of HBV (hepatitis B surface antigen; HBsAg) and anti-HCV antibody among pregnant women at the Al-Thawra hospital in Sana’a, Yemen. Structured questionnaires were used to obtain sociodemographic obstetrics and medical data and sera were tested for HBsAg and anti-HCV.
Of the 400 pregnant women enrolled in the study, HBsAg and anti-HCV were detected in 43 (10.8%; 95% CI: 8.0–14.0%) and 34 (8.5%, 95% CI: 6.0–11.5%) women, respectively. None of the women were co-infected with HBV and HCV. Multivariate analysis showed that circumcision was significantly associated with HBsAg seropositivity (OR = 3.3, 95% CI: 1.1–10.2; p = 0.03), low parity (primigravidae and secundigravidae) and education below secondary level were significantly associated with anti- HCV seropositivity (OR = 3.3, 95% CI: 1.1–10.2; p = 0.03). No other sociodemographic or clinical characteristics (age, residence, history of home delivery, miscarriage, dental manipulation, surgery, and blood transfusion) were significantly associated with HBsAg or anti-HCV seropositivity.
The results of this study suggest that HBsAg and anti-HCV have high prevalence among pregnant women.
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