Stability and fitness of pyraclostrobin- and boscalid-resistant phenotypes in field isolates of Botrytis cinerea from apple.
ABSTRACT Phenotype stability, fitness, and competitive ability of pyraclostrobin- and boscalid-resistant isolates of Botrytis cinerea from apple were investigated. Stability of resistance was determined after consecutive transfers on potato dextrose agar (PDA) or being cycled on apple fruit. In vitro fitness components mycelial growth, osmotic sensitivity, conidial germination, and sporulation were evaluated on agar media. Pathogenicity, virulence and sporulation on apple fruit were evaluated at both 20 and 0°C. Competition between fungicide-resistant and -sensitive isolates on apple fruit also was evaluated. Resistance to the two fungicides was retained at levels similar to that of the initial generation after 20 and 10 transfers on PDA and five and three disease cycles on apple fruit at 20 and 0°C, respectively. Great variability in individual fitness components tested was observed among isolates within the same phenotype groups either sensitive or resistant to the fungicides but, when compared as phenotype groups, there were no significant differences in the mean values of these fitness components between resistant and sensitive phenotypes except that the phenotype resistant only to boscalid produced fewer conidia in vitro than sensitive isolates. Resistant isolates were as pathogenic and virulent on apple fruit as sensitive isolates. There was no significant correlation between the values of individual fitness components tested and the level of resistance to pyraclostrobin or boscalid, except that virulence at 20°C positively correlated with the level of resistance to the two fungicides. The final frequency of pyraclostrobin-resistant individuals in the populations was significantly decreased compared with the initial generation and no boscalid-resistant individuals were detected after four disease cycles on apple fruit inoculated with a pair mixture of a dual-sensitive isolate and one isolate each of the three phenotypes resistant to pyraclostrobin, boscalid, or both. The results suggest that resistance of B. cinerea to pyraclostrobin and boscalid was stable in the absence of the fungicides and that resistance to the two fungicides did not significantly impair individual fitness components tested. However, both pyraclostrobin- and boscalid-resistant isolates exhibited competitive disadvantage over the dual-sensitive isolate on apple fruit.
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ABSTRACT: Botrytis cinerea is a pathogenic ascomycete fungus that causes gray mold on many crops. Chemical control remains the principal method for curbing this disease. However, fungicide efficacy may be compromised by the selection of resistant strains. Assessments of the fitness of resistant strains is important, to evaluate the risk of their establishment in populations. Strains resistant to boscalid, the only succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor (SDHI) registered for the treatment of gray mold on grapevine in France, have recently been detected in the field. Most of these strains harbor mutations of the sdhB gene, encoding subunit B of SDH. In this study, we used sdhB recombinant mutants to investigate the impact of mutations conferring SDHI resistance on the fitness of B. cinerea. We have shown that sdhB mutations (except for the sdhBH272Y mutation) affect SDH activity and respiration rate. Our results suggest that different sdhB mutations have different effects on fitness. In particular, mutants displaying an inhibition of SDH activity do not suffer the same effects on fitness. We discuss the results in the context of mutant frequencies in field populations and the possible occurrence of compensatory mechanisms that modulate fitness losses.Fungal Genetics and Biology 06/2014; · 3.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Respiration inhibitors such as the Succinate Dehydrogenase Inhibitors (SDHIs) and the Quinone outside Inhibitors (QoIs) are fungicide classes with increasing relevance in gray mold control. However, recent studies have shown that dual resistance to both fungicide classes is a common trait in Botrytis cinerea populations from several hosts, throughout the world. Resistance of B. cinerea to SDHIs is associated with several mutations in the sdhB, sdhC and sdhD genes, while resistance to QoIs, in most cases, is associated with the G143A mutation in cytb gene. The objective of the current study was to investigate the fitness and the competitive ability of B. cinerea field-strains possessing one of the H272Y/R/L, N230I or P225F sdhB substitutions and the G143A mutation of cytb. Fitness parameters measured were: i) mycelial growth and conidia germination in vitro, ii) aggressiveness and sporulation capacity in vivo, iii) sclerotia production in vitro and sclerotia viability under different storage conditions and iv) sensitivity to oxidative stress imposed by diquat treatments. The competitive ability of the resistant isolates was measured in the absence and presence of the SDHI fungicides boscalid and fluopyram selection pressure. The measurements of individual fitness components showed that the H272R/G143A isolates had the lower differences compared to the sensitive isolates. In contrast, the groups of H272Y/L/G143A, N230I/G143A and P225F/G143A isolates showed reduced fitness values compared to the sensitive isolates. Isolates possessing only the cytb G143A substitution did not show any fitness cost. Τhe competition experiments showed that, in the absence of fungicide selection pressure, after 4 disease cycles on apple fruit the sensitive isolates dominated in the population in all the mixtures tested. In contrast, when the competition experiment was conducted under the selection pressure of boscalid a gradual decrease in the frequency of sensitive isolates was observed, while the frequency of H272L and P225F isolates was increased. When the competition experiment was conducted in the presence of fluopyram the sensitive isolates were eliminated even after the 1st disease cycle and the P225F mutants dominated in the population. Such results suggest that the sdhB mutations may have adverse effects on the mutants. The observed dominance of sensitive isolates in the competition experiments conducted in the absence of fungicides suggest that the application of SDHIs in alternation schemes may delay the selection or reduce the frequency of SDHI-resistant mutants.Phytopathology 10/2013; · 2.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The sugar alcohol mannitol is a carbohydrate with well-documented roles in both metabolism and osmoprotection in plants and fungi. In addition, however, mannitol is an antioxidant, and current research suggests that pathogenic fungi can secrete mannitol into the plant’s extracellular spaces during infection to suppress reactive oxygen-mediated host defenses. In response to pathogen attack, plants have been shown to secrete the normally symplastic enzyme, mannitol dehydrogenase (MTD). Given that MTD converts mannitol to the sugar mannose, extracellular MTD may be an important defense against mannitol-secreting fungal pathogens. Previous work demonstrated that overexpression of MTD in tobacco did, in fact, provide increased resistance to the mannitol-secreting fungal pathogen Alternaria alternata. In the present work we demonstrate that the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea also can secrete mannitol, and that overexpression of MTD in zonal geranium (Pelargonium × hortorum) in turn provides increased resistance to B. cinerea. These results are not only an important validation of previous work, but support the idea that MTD-overexpression might be used to engineer a broad variety of plants for resistance to mannitol-secreting fungal pathogens like B. cinerea for which specific resistance is lacking.Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture 12/2013; 115:367–375. · 2.61 Impact Factor