Stability and fitness of pyraclostrobin- and boscalid-resistant phenotypes in field isolates of Botrytis cinerea from apple.
ABSTRACT Phenotype stability, fitness, and competitive ability of pyraclostrobin- and boscalid-resistant isolates of Botrytis cinerea from apple were investigated. Stability of resistance was determined after consecutive transfers on potato dextrose agar (PDA) or being cycled on apple fruit. In vitro fitness components mycelial growth, osmotic sensitivity, conidial germination, and sporulation were evaluated on agar media. Pathogenicity, virulence and sporulation on apple fruit were evaluated at both 20 and 0°C. Competition between fungicide-resistant and -sensitive isolates on apple fruit also was evaluated. Resistance to the two fungicides was retained at levels similar to that of the initial generation after 20 and 10 transfers on PDA and five and three disease cycles on apple fruit at 20 and 0°C, respectively. Great variability in individual fitness components tested was observed among isolates within the same phenotype groups either sensitive or resistant to the fungicides but, when compared as phenotype groups, there were no significant differences in the mean values of these fitness components between resistant and sensitive phenotypes except that the phenotype resistant only to boscalid produced fewer conidia in vitro than sensitive isolates. Resistant isolates were as pathogenic and virulent on apple fruit as sensitive isolates. There was no significant correlation between the values of individual fitness components tested and the level of resistance to pyraclostrobin or boscalid, except that virulence at 20°C positively correlated with the level of resistance to the two fungicides. The final frequency of pyraclostrobin-resistant individuals in the populations was significantly decreased compared with the initial generation and no boscalid-resistant individuals were detected after four disease cycles on apple fruit inoculated with a pair mixture of a dual-sensitive isolate and one isolate each of the three phenotypes resistant to pyraclostrobin, boscalid, or both. The results suggest that resistance of B. cinerea to pyraclostrobin and boscalid was stable in the absence of the fungicides and that resistance to the two fungicides did not significantly impair individual fitness components tested. However, both pyraclostrobin- and boscalid-resistant isolates exhibited competitive disadvantage over the dual-sensitive isolate on apple fruit.