Awareness and Preferences Regarding BRCA1/2 Genetic Counseling and Testing Among Latinas and Non-Latina White Women at Increased Risk for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer
ABSTRACT This study was an investigation of awareness, cognitions, and psychosocial and educational needs related to genetic counseling and testing among Latinas and non-Latina whites at increased risk for having a BRCA1/2 mutation. Sixty-three Latina and eighty-four non-Latina white women completed telephone surveys employing a mixture of quantitative and qualitative questions assessing awareness, benefits, risks, barriers, and genetic counseling communication preferences regarding BRCA1/2 testing. Among participants who had not previously had genetic counseling/testing, 56.9% of Latinas (29/51) and 34.8% of non-Latina white participants (24/69) were unaware of the availability of BRCA1/2 testing. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, Latina ethnicity was the only statistically significant independent factor associated with lack of awareness (OR = 0.42; 95% CI = 0.19-0.35). No appreciable differences were noted between ethnic groups regarding perceived benefits of BRCA1/2 testing or desired genetic counseling topics. These findings underscore the importance of increasing awareness of cancer genetic counseling and genetic testing among both Latina and non-Latina white populations.
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ABSTRACT: The past decade has witnessed rapid advances in human genome sequencing technology and in the understanding of the role of genetic and epigenetic alterations in cancer development. These advances have raised hopes that such knowledge could lead to improvements in behavioral risk reduction interventions, tailored screening recommendations, and treatment matching that together could accelerate the war on cancer. Despite this optimism, translation of genomic discovery for clinical and public health applications has moved relatively slowly. To date, health psychologists and the behavioral sciences generally have played a very limited role in translation research. In this report we discuss what we mean by genomic translational research and consider the social forces that have slowed translational research, including normative assumptions that translation research must occur downstream of basic science, thus relegating health psychology and other behavioral sciences to a distal role. We then outline two broad priority areas in cancer prevention, detection, and treatment where evidence will be needed to guide evaluation and implementation of personalized genomics: (a) effective communication, to broaden dissemination of genomic discovery, including patient-provider communication and familial communication, and (b) the need to improve the motivational impact of behavior change interventions, including those aimed at altering lifestyle choices and those focusing on decision making regarding targeted cancer treatments and chemopreventive adherence. We further discuss the role that health psychologists can play in interdisciplinary teams to shape translational research priorities and to evaluate the utility of emerging genomic discoveries for cancer prevention and control. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).American Psychologist 02/2015; 70(2):91-104. DOI:10.1037/a0036568 · 6.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Despite underuse of genetic services for hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancer risk among Latinas (including counseling and testing for BRCA mutations), there is little known about the barriers and facilitators to BRCA genetic counseling among this group. It is imperative to first understand factors that may impede Latinas seeking BRCA genetic counseling, as it is considered a prerequisite to testing. METHODS: Quantitative telephone interviews (N = 120) were conducted with at-risk Latinas in New York City to investigate interest, barriers, and beliefs about BRCA genetic counseling. Statistical analyses examined predictors of intention to undergo BRCA genetic counseling. RESULTS: Despite moderate levels of awareness, Latinas held largely positive beliefs, attitudes, and knowledge about BRCA genetic counseling. Perceived barriers included logistic concerns (e.g., where to go, cost/health insurance coverage), emotional concerns (e.g., fear, distress), and competing life concerns (e.g., too many other things to worry about, too busy taking care of children or family members). Multivariate results showed that the strongest predictor of intention to undergo BRCA genetic counseling was competing life concerns; Latinas with more competing life concerns were less likely to intend to undergo BRCA genetic counseling (p = 0.0002). Other significant predictors of intention included perceived risk of carrying a BRCA mutation (p = 0.01) and referral by their physician (p = 0.02). CONCLUSION: Educational efforts to promote BRCA genetic counseling among at-risk Latinas and increase referrals by their physicians should incorporate discussion of perceived barriers to counseling, such as competing life concerns that Latinas may need to overcome in order to seek genetic counseling. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Psycho-Oncology 07/2013; 22(7). DOI:10.1002/pon.3187 · 4.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Genetic testing for several cancer susceptibility syndromes is clinically available; however, existing data suggest limited population awareness of such tests. To examine awareness regarding cancer genetic testing in the U.S. population aged ≥25 years in the 2000, 2005, and 2010 National Health Interview Surveys. The weighted percentages of respondents aware of cancer genetic tests, and percent changes from 2000-2005 and 2005-2010, overall and by demographic, family history, and healthcare factors were calculated. Interactions were used to evaluate the patterns of change in awareness between 2005 and 2010 among subgroups within each factor. To evaluate associations with awareness in 2005 and 2010, percentages were adjusted for covariates using multiple logistic regression. The analysis was performed in 2012. Awareness decreased from 44.4% to 41.5% (p<0.001) between 2000 and 2005, and increased to 47.0% (p<0.001) in 2010. Awareness increased between 2005 and 2010 in most subgroups, particularly among individuals in the South (pinteraction=0.03) or with a usual place of care (pinteraction=0.01). In 2005 and 2010, awareness was positively associated with personal or family cancer history and high perceived cancer risk, and inversely associated with racial/ethnic minorities, age 25-39 or ≥60 years, male gender, lower education and income levels, public or no health insurance, and no provider contact in 12 months. Despite improvement from 2005 to 2010, ≤50% of the U.S. adult population was aware of cancer genetic testing in 2010. Notably, disparities persist for racial/ethnic minorities and individuals with limited health care access or income.American journal of preventive medicine 05/2014; 46(5):440-8. DOI:10.1016/j.amepre.2014.01.002 · 4.28 Impact Factor