Diagnostic Performance and Therapeutic Consequence of Thromboelastometry Activated by Kaolin versus a Panel of Specific Reagents
ABSTRACT Thromboelastography/metry (TEG®; Haemoscope, Niles, IL/ROTEM®; Tem International GmbH, Munich, Germany) is increasingly used to guide transfusion therapy. This study investigated the diagnostic performance and therapeutic consequence of using kaolin-activated whole blood compared with a panel of specific TEM®-reagents to distinguish: dilutional coagulopathy, thrombocytopenia, hyperfibrinolysis, and heparinization.
Blood was drawn from 11 healthy volunteers. Dilutional coagulopathy was generated by 50% dilution with hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 whereas thrombocytopenia (mean platelet count 20 ×10⁹/l) was induced using a validated model. Hyperfibrinolysis and heparin contamination were generated by tissue plasminogen activator 2 nM and unfractionated heparin 0.1U/ml, respectively. Coagulation tests were run on ROTEM® delta.
Kaolin-activated whole blood showed no differences between dilutional coagulopathy and thrombocytopenia (mean clotting time 450 s vs. 516 s, α-angle 47.1° vs. 41.5°, maximum clot firmness 35.0 mm vs. 34.2 mm, all P values ≥0.14). Hyperfibrinolysis specifically disclosed an increased maximum lysis (median: 100%, all P values less than 0.001), and heparin induced a distinctly prolonged clotting time (2283 s, all P values less than 0.02). The coagulopathies were readily distinguishable using a panel of TEM-reagents. In particular, dilutional coagulopathy was separated from thrombocytopenia using FIBTEM (maximum clot firmness 1.9 mm vs. 11.2 mm, P < 0.001). The run time of analysis to achieve diagnostic data was shorter applying a panel of TEM-reagents. A transfusion algorithm based on kaolin suggested platelets in case of dilutional coagulopathy, whereas an algorithm applying TEM-reagents suggested fibrinogen.
Monoanalysis with kaolin was unable to distinguish coagulopathies caused by dilution from that of thrombocytopenia. Algorithms based on the use of kaolin may lead to unnecessary transfusion with platelets, whereas the application of TEM-reagents may result in goal-directed fibrinogen substitution.
SourceAvailable from: Klaus GörlingerPerioperative Hemostasis: Coagulation for Anesthesiologists, Edited by Carlo E. Marcucci, Patrick Schoettker, 01/2015: chapter Perioperative Hemostasis in Hepatic Surgery: pages 267-283; Springer Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg.
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ABSTRACT: Background. Whole blood viscoelastic tests such as the fibrin-based thromboelastometry (ROTEM®) test FIBTEM are increasingly used in the perioperative setting to quickly identify deficits in fibrin quality, and to guide hemostatic therapy. The recently developed FibScreen2 test of the ReoRox® method, based on free oscillation rheometry, also provides an evaluation of fibrin clot quality. To date, little information is available on the performance of this test in hemodiluted blood, by comparison to FIBTEM. Methods. Whole blood samples from eight healthy volunteers were analyzed using FIBTEM and Fibscreen2. Native and diluted (to 33% and 50% using saline, gelatin or hydroxyethyl starch [HES]) samples were analyzed. Clot strength parameters, including FIBTEM maximum clot firmness (MCF), FIBTEM maximum clot elasticity (MCE) and Fibscreen2 maximum elasticity (G'max), were measured. Results. In repeatedly measured samples from two volunteers, FIBTEM MCF and Fibscreen2 G'max revealed a coefficient of variation (CV) of 5.3 vs. 16.3% and 5.6 vs. 31.7% for each volunteer, respectively. Hemodilution decreased clot strength. Both Fibscreen2 G'max and FIBTEM parameters decreased proportionally to the dilution ratio when saline was used. The observed reductions in FIBTEM and Fibscreen2 parameters were more severe in samples diluted with gelatin and HES, compared to saline. Finally, a regression analysis between FIBTEM MCE and Fibscreen2 G'max revealed a poor goodness of fit (r2 = 0.37, p < 0.0001). Conclusions. ReoRox® Fibscreen2 test has a high coefficient of variation, and its application in various hemodilution conditions showed limited comparability with the ROTEM® FIBTEM test.Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation 01/2015; DOI:10.3109/00365513.2014.993698 · 2.01 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Trauma-induced coagulopathy represents a life-threatening complication in severely injured patients. To avoid exsanguination, rapid surgical bleeding control coupled with immediate and aggressive haemostatic treatment is mandatory. In most trauma centres, coagulation therapy is established with transfusion of high volumes of fresh frozen plasma. Due to logistic issues, only busy trauma facilities store pre-thawed plasma ready for immediate transfusion. Thus, substantial time delays have been reported between the first unit of red blood cells transfused and the administration of fresh frozen plasma. An alternative for rapid improvement of haemostatic capacity is purified coagulation factor concentrates. They contain a well-defined concentration of coagulation proteins, carry a low risk for transfusion-related lung injury and virus transmission, and are available for immediate use without the need for blood group matching. In some European trauma centres, treatment algorithms have been developed for the administration of coagulation factor concentrates based on visco-elastic test results.Anaesthesia 01/2015; 70(s1). DOI:10.1111/anae.12901 · 3.85 Impact Factor