Article

4-Hydroperoxy-2-nonenal is not just an intermediate but a reactive molecule that covalently modifies proteins to generate unique intramolecular oxidation products.

Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601, Japan.
Journal of Biological Chemistry (Impact Factor: 4.65). 06/2011; 286(33):29313-24. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M111.255737
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT α,β-Unsaturated aldehydes generated during lipid peroxidation, such as 4-oxoalkenals and 4-hydroxyalkenals, can give rise to protein degeneration in a variety of pathological states. Although the covalent modification of proteins by these end products has been well studied, the reactivity of unstable intermediates possessing a hydroperoxy group, such as 4-hydroperoxy-2-nonenal (HPNE), with protein has received little attention. We have now established a unique protein modification in which the 4-hydroperoxy group of HPNE is involved in the formation of structurally unusual lysine adducts. In addition, we showed that one of the HPNE-specific lysine adducts constitutes the epitope of a monoclonal antibody raised against the HPNE-modified protein. Upon incubation with bovine serum albumin, HPNE preferentially reacted with the lysine residues. By employing N(α)-benzoylglycyl-lysine, we detected two major products containing one HPNE molecule per peptide. Based on the chemical and spectroscopic evidence, the products were identified to be the N(α)-benzoylglycyl derivatives of N(ε)-4-hydroxynonanoic acid-lysine and N(ε)-4-hydroxy-(2Z)-nonenoyllysine, both of which are suggested to be formed through mechanisms in which the initial HPNE-lysine adducts undergo Baeyer-Villiger-like reactions proceeding through an intramolecular oxidation catalyzed by the hydroperoxy group. On the other hand, using an HPNE-modified protein as the immunogen, we raised a monoclonal antibody against the HPNE-modified protein and identified one of the HPNE-specific lysine adducts, N(ε)-4-hydroxynonanoic acid-lysine, as an intrinsic epitope of the monoclonal antibody. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the HPNE-specific epitopes were produced not only in the oxidized low density lipoprotein in vitro but also in the atherosclerotic lesions. These results indicated that HPNE is not just an intermediate but also a reactive molecule that could covalently modify proteins in biological systems.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
86 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Natural antibodies (Abs), predominantly IgMs, play an important function in the host response to the recognition of endogenous danger signals called damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Many of the natural IgM Abs also show several different antigenic cross-reactivities toward covalently modified proteins, such as oxidized low-density lipoproteins and advanced glycation end products. Of interest, a recent study has shown that these DAMPs have several physicochemical characteristics that differ from native proteins, such as an increased negative charge due to modification of the lysine residues. This finding may provide a mechanistic insight into the multi-specificity of the natural Abs.
    Free Radical Biology & Medicine 03/2014; · 5.27 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Protein lipoxidation refers to the modification by electrophilic lipid oxidation products to form covalent adducts, which for many years has been considered as a deleterious consequence of oxidative stress. Oxidized lipids or phospholipids containing carbonyl moieties react readily with lysine to form Schiff bases; alternatively, oxidation products containing α,β-unsaturated moieties, are susceptible to nucleophilic attack by cysteine, histidine or lysine residues to yield Michael adducts, overall corresponding to a large number of possible protein adducts. The most common detection methods for lipoxidized proteins take advantage of the presence of reactive carbonyl groups to add labels, or use antibodies. These methods have limitations in terms of specificity and identification of the modification site. The latter question is satisfactorily addressed by mass spectrometry, which enables the characterization of the adduct structure. This has allowed the identification of lipoxidized proteins in physiological and pathological situations. While in many cases lipoxidation interferes with protein function, causing inhibition of enzymatic activity and increased immunogenicity, there are a small number of cases where lipoxidation results in gain of function or activity. For certain proteins lipoxidation may represent a form of redox signalling, although more work is required to confirm the physiological relevance and mechanisms of such processes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Protein Modifications.
    Journal of proteomics 06/2013; · 5.07 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Peroxidation of membranes and lipoproteins converts "inert" phospholipids into a plethora of oxidatively modified phospholipids (oxPL) that can act as signaling molecules. In this review, we will discuss four major classes of oxPL: mildly oxygenated phospholipids, phospholipids with oxidatively truncated acyl chains, phospholipids with cyclized acyl chains, and phospholipids that have been oxidatively N-modified on their headgroups by reactive lipid species. For each class of oxPL we will review the chemical mechanisms of their formation, the evidence for their formation in biological samples, the biological activities and signaling pathways associated with them, and the catabolic pathways for their elimination. We will end by briefly highlighting some of the critical questions that remain about the role of oxPL in physiology and disease.
    Chemistry and Physics of Lipids 04/2014; · 2.59 Impact Factor