To examine the indications, risks, and surgical outcomes after tracheal reconstruction using cadaveric homograft in children.
Retrospective medical record review.
Tertiary referral center.
Ten children (4 boys and 6 girls).
Tracheal reconstruction using cadaveric homograft.
Cause of stenosis, number and type of procedures before homograft reconstruction, severity of preoperative stenosis, surgical approach, homograft length, duration of stenting, number and type of procedures after reconstruction, and rates of decannulation and survival.
Ten children (mean [SD] age, 8.4 [5.5] years) underwent 14 tracheal reconstructions using cadaveric homograft. Patients had an average of 7.0 (range, 1-16) procedures before homograft reconstruction, including an average of 2.8 (range, 0-6) major open airway reconstructions. Mean (SD) pretracheoplasty Myer-Cotton grade of stenosis was 3.80 (0.42) (range, 3-4), and all patients were tracheotomy dependent. A cervical approach was used in 12 reconstructions (86%), and 2 (14%) required median sternotomy. Mean (SD) homograft length was 3.9 (1.7) cm (range, 2-8 cm), which was approximately 0.60 times the length of the total recipient trachea. Mean (SD) duration of stenting for all homografts was 0.67 (0.46) years (range, 0.24-1.98 years). The survival rate was 90% after a mean follow-up of 5.47 (1.52) years (range, 3.32-7.55 years). Surviving patients required an average of 7.38 (5.52) procedures (range, 1-19) after homograft transplant, including an average of 1 major open airway reconstruction (range, 0-4). The mean (SD) grade of stenosis after the final homograft placement was 1.89 (1.27) (range, 1-4). Although the operation-specific decannulation rate was only 7% (1 of 14), the overall decannulation rate eventually reached 60%. Statistical bootstrapping methods and a multivariate regression model determined that increasing patient age (odds ratio, 1.21; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.36), increasing number of prior procedures (1.26; 1.02-1.57), and increasing homograft length (2.42; 1.60-3.40 [P < .001]) were associated with an increased risk of no decannulation after tracheal homograft reconstruction.
Tracheal reconstruction using cadaveric homograft is an option in children who have undergone multiple airway surgical procedures and present with long-segment stenoses that cannot be bridged using conventional methods. These patients must receive close postoperative follow-up. Subsequent procedures are almost always required before decannulation, and eventual decannulation rates are only 60%. Decannulation rates are lower in older patients who have previously undergone many procedures and require a long tracheal homograft.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The use of synthetic degradable or permanent polymers and biomaterials has not yet helped to achieve successful clinical whole-airway replacement. A novel, clinically successful approach involves tissue engineering (TE) replacement using three-dimensional biologic scaffolds composed of allogeneic extracellular scaffolds derived from nonautologous sources and recellularized with autologous stem cells or differentiated cells. In this paper, we discuss this novel approach and review information that can lead to a better understanding of stem cell recruitment and/or mobilization and site-specific tissue protection, which can be pharmacologically boosted in humans.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reconstruction of long-segment tracheal stenosis remains problematic. Ex vivo transplantation of stem cell-derived tracheas has been established in humans using external tissue bioreactors. These bioreactors, however, are not widely accessible. Thus, we are developing a rotational flap-based "internal bioreactor" to allow in vivo stem cell engraftment in a pre-vascularized recipient bed. This muscle will also then serve as a carrier for the transplanted trachea during rotation into position for airway reconstruction. Herein, we present a study investigating the feasibility of two pedicle muscle flaps for implantation and subsequent tracheal transplantation. Trapezius and latissimus flaps were raised using established surgical techniques. The length and width of each flap, along with the distance from the pedicle takeoff to the trachea, were measured. The overall ability of the flaps to reach the trachea was assessed. Twelve flaps were raised in 5 fresh adult human cadavers. For the trapezius flap, averages were: flap length of 16.4 cm, flap width of 5.95 cm at the tip, and distance from the pedicle takeoff to the trachea of 11.1 cm. For the latissimus dorsi flap, averages were: flap length of 35.4 cm, flap width of 7.25 cm at the tip, and distance from the pedicle takeoff to the trachea of 27.3 cm. All flaps showed sufficient durability and rotational ability. Our results show that both trapezius and latissimus dorsi flaps can be transposed into the neck to allow tension-free closure of tracheal defects. For cervical tracheal transplantation, both flaps are equally adequate. We believe that trapezius and latissimus dorsi muscle flaps are potential tracheal implantation beds in terms of vascular supply, durability, and rotational ability.
Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology 07/2012; 270(1). DOI:10.1007/s00405-012-2105-5 · 1.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many patients require tracheal reconstruction either for tracheal stenosis/malacia or following tumor extirpation. However, such patients can be debilitated following failed conventional treatments. Recent advances in tissue engineering and vascularized composite grafts are accelerating the field of tracheal reconstruction. This article reviews new clinical concepts for tracheal reconstruction.
Novel treatments include composite autografts, allografts, chimeric autografts and allografts, tissue-engineered grafts, prosthetic scaffolds, and the use of free-tissue vascularized carriers.
New procedures for tracheal reconstruction hold much promise for treating difficult tracheal disorders and improving the quality of life for affected patients. Many of the techniques reviewed herein are single case series and require further investigation and validation.
Current opinion in otolaryngology & head and neck surgery 08/2012; 20(4):246-53. DOI:10.1097/MOO.0b013e328355580e · 1.84 Impact Factor
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