Pediatric Tracheal Reconstruction Using Cadaveric Homograft
ABSTRACT To examine the indications, risks, and surgical outcomes after tracheal reconstruction using cadaveric homograft in children.
Retrospective medical record review.
Tertiary referral center.
Ten children (4 boys and 6 girls).
Tracheal reconstruction using cadaveric homograft.
Cause of stenosis, number and type of procedures before homograft reconstruction, severity of preoperative stenosis, surgical approach, homograft length, duration of stenting, number and type of procedures after reconstruction, and rates of decannulation and survival.
Ten children (mean [SD] age, 8.4 [5.5] years) underwent 14 tracheal reconstructions using cadaveric homograft. Patients had an average of 7.0 (range, 1-16) procedures before homograft reconstruction, including an average of 2.8 (range, 0-6) major open airway reconstructions. Mean (SD) pretracheoplasty Myer-Cotton grade of stenosis was 3.80 (0.42) (range, 3-4), and all patients were tracheotomy dependent. A cervical approach was used in 12 reconstructions (86%), and 2 (14%) required median sternotomy. Mean (SD) homograft length was 3.9 (1.7) cm (range, 2-8 cm), which was approximately 0.60 times the length of the total recipient trachea. Mean (SD) duration of stenting for all homografts was 0.67 (0.46) years (range, 0.24-1.98 years). The survival rate was 90% after a mean follow-up of 5.47 (1.52) years (range, 3.32-7.55 years). Surviving patients required an average of 7.38 (5.52) procedures (range, 1-19) after homograft transplant, including an average of 1 major open airway reconstruction (range, 0-4). The mean (SD) grade of stenosis after the final homograft placement was 1.89 (1.27) (range, 1-4). Although the operation-specific decannulation rate was only 7% (1 of 14), the overall decannulation rate eventually reached 60%. Statistical bootstrapping methods and a multivariate regression model determined that increasing patient age (odds ratio, 1.21; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.36), increasing number of prior procedures (1.26; 1.02-1.57), and increasing homograft length (2.42; 1.60-3.40 [P < .001]) were associated with an increased risk of no decannulation after tracheal homograft reconstruction.
Tracheal reconstruction using cadaveric homograft is an option in children who have undergone multiple airway surgical procedures and present with long-segment stenoses that cannot be bridged using conventional methods. These patients must receive close postoperative follow-up. Subsequent procedures are almost always required before decannulation, and eventual decannulation rates are only 60%. Decannulation rates are lower in older patients who have previously undergone many procedures and require a long tracheal homograft.
Article: Reconstruction of the Trachea[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This article reviews established methods of autologous tracheal reconstruction, the various synthetic prostheses that have been used in clinical practice, and briefly describes the latest developments in stem cell tracheal bioengineering and allogeneic tracheal transplantation. Reconstruction of the trachea is challenging due to its part cervical part thoracic location, proximity to major vessels, variable blood supply, and its constant colonization with bacteria. In cases of limited resection, primary anastomosis, autologous patch grafts, local advancement rotation flaps, and locoregional cutaneous and muscle flaps will often suffice. In more extensive resections, complex composite microsurgical reconstruction with a radial forearm free flap with cartilage grafts for skeletal support has proven to be viable and reliable. Synthetic tracheal prostheses, solid as well as porous, have been trialed with disappointing results. Infection, dislodgement, migration, and obstruction are not uncommon. Reconstruction with the cadaveric tracheal allografts and aortic allografts continue to be fraught with complications, specifically graft infections. Tracheal bioengineering and tracheal allotransplantation have emerged relatively recently. Despite early promising results, long-term outcome data on these new techniques are still lacking.Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery 12/2013; 30(3). DOI:10.1055/s-0033-1358786 · 1.01 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Many patients require tracheal reconstruction either for tracheal stenosis/malacia or following tumor extirpation. However, such patients can be debilitated following failed conventional treatments. Recent advances in tissue engineering and vascularized composite grafts are accelerating the field of tracheal reconstruction. This article reviews new clinical concepts for tracheal reconstruction. Novel treatments include composite autografts, allografts, chimeric autografts and allografts, tissue-engineered grafts, prosthetic scaffolds, and the use of free-tissue vascularized carriers. New procedures for tracheal reconstruction hold much promise for treating difficult tracheal disorders and improving the quality of life for affected patients. Many of the techniques reviewed herein are single case series and require further investigation and validation.Current opinion in otolaryngology & head and neck surgery 08/2012; 20(4):246-53. DOI:10.1097/MOO.0b013e328355580e · 1.39 Impact Factor
Article: Advances in Tracheal Reconstruction[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A recent revival of global interest for reconstruction of long-segment tracheal defects, which represents one of the most interesting and complex problems in head and neck and thoracic reconstructive surgery, has been witnessed. The trachea functions as a conduit for air, and its subunits including the epithelial layer, hyaline cartilage, and segmental blood supply make it particularly challenging to reconstruct. A myriad of attempts at replacing the trachea have been described. These along with the anatomy, indications, and approaches including microsurgical tracheal reconstruction will be reviewed. Novel techniques such as tissue-engineering approaches will also be discussed. Multiple attempts at replacing the trachea with synthetic scaffolds have been met with failure. The main lesson learned from such failures is that the trachea must not be treated as a "simple tube." Understanding the anatomy, developmental biology, physiology, and diseases affecting the trachea are required for solving this problem.07/2014; 2(7):e178. DOI:10.1097/GOX.0000000000000097