Rodent blood-stage Plasmodium survive in dendritic cells that infect naive mice

Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia 4029.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Impact Factor: 9.67). 06/2011; 108(27):11205-10. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1108579108
Source: PubMed


Plasmodium spp. parasites cause malaria in 300 to 500 million individuals each year. Disease occurs during the blood-stage of the parasite's life cycle, where the parasite is thought to replicate exclusively within erythrocytes. Infected individuals can also suffer relapses after several years, from Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale surviving in hepatocytes. Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium malariae can also persist after the original bout of infection has apparently cleared in the blood, suggesting that host cells other than erythrocytes (but not hepatocytes) may harbor these blood-stage parasites, thereby assisting their escape from host immunity. Using blood stage transgenic Plasmodium berghei-expressing GFP (PbGFP) to track parasites in host cells, we found that the parasite had a tropism for CD317(+) dendritic cells. Other studies using confocal microscopy, in vitro cultures, and cell transfer studies showed that blood-stage parasites could infect, survive, and replicate within CD317(+) dendritic cells, and that small numbers of these cells released parasites infectious for erythrocytes in vivo. These data have identified a unique survival strategy for blood-stage Plasmodium, which has significant implications for understanding the escape of Plasmodium spp. from immune-surveillance and for vaccine development.

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Available from: Derek J Richard, Oct 09, 2015
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    • "If this is the case, the recurrence of heterologous parasites may not be necessarily due to previous infection(s) with multiple different clones [51] but to genetic variation of one parasite clone within the human host. In addition, homologous parasites in recurrent infections may represent relapses of a limited diversified parasite population or non-hypnozoite stages (i.e., parasite stages within splenic dendritic cells) that re-activate after extended periods of latency [5,52,53]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Despite the large burden of Plasmodium vivax, little is known about its transmission dynamics. This study explored the population structure and spatio-temporal dynamics of P. vivax recurrent infections after radical cure in a two-year cohort study carried out in a rural community of the Peruvian Amazon. A total of 37 P. vivax participants recruited in San Carlos community (Peru) between April and December 2008 were treated radically with chloroquine and primaquine and followed up monthly for two years with systematic blood sampling. All samples were screened for malaria parasites and subsequently all P. vivax infections genotyped using 15 microsatellites. Parasite population structure and dynamics were determined by computing different genetic indices and using spatio-temporal statistics. After radical cure, 76% of the study participants experienced one or more recurrent P. vivax infections, most of them sub-patent and asymptomatic. The parasite population displayed limited genetic diversity (He = 0.49) and clonal structure, with most infections (84%) being monoclonal. Spatio-temporal clusters of specific haplotypes were found throughout the study and persistence of highly frequent haplotypes were observed over several months within the same participants/households. In San Carlos community, P. vivax recurrences were commonly observed after radical treatment, and characterized by asymptomatic, sub-patent and clustered infections (within and between individuals from a few neighbouring households). Moreover low genetic diversity as well as parasite inbreeding are likely to define a clonal parasite population which has important implications on the malaria epidemiology of the study area.
    Malaria Journal 01/2014; 13(1):8. DOI:10.1186/1475-2875-13-8 · 3.11 Impact Factor
    • "In conclusion, the role of pDCs in supporting blood-stage malaria (Wykes et al., 2011) has important implications for this very significant disease. It provides a plausible explanation of how the spleen may be a sub-clinical reservoir for P. falciparum malaria. "
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    ABSTRACT: Malaria, caused by Plasmodium spp., is responsible for over 200 million infections worldwide and 650,000 deaths annually. Until recently, it was thought that blood-stage parasites survived and replicated in hepatocytes and red blood cells exclusively. We recently showed that blood-stage parasites could infect, survive and replicate within plasmacytoid dendritic cells of the spleen and that these cells could release infective parasites. Here we discuss the implications of this novel niche in the spleen.
    International journal for parasitology 05/2012; 42(6):583-7. DOI:10.1016/j.ijpara.2012.03.002 · 3.87 Impact Factor
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    • "Extraction of curcuminoids from plasma was carried out as described by Song et al [13]. Briefly, the plasma samples were adjusted to pH 3.0 with 6N HCl and extracted twice with twice the volume of a mixture of ethylacetate and isopropanol (9∶1, v/v). "
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    ABSTRACT: Earlier studies in this laboratory have shown the potential of artemisinin-curcumin combination therapy in experimental malaria. In a parasite recrudescence model in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei (ANKA), a single dose of alpha,beta-arteether (ART) with three oral doses of curcumin prevented recrudescence, providing almost 95% protection. The parasites were completely cleared in blood with ART-alone (AE) or ART+curcumin (AC) treatments in the short-term, although the clearance was faster in the latter case involving increased ROS generation. But, parasites in liver and spleen were not cleared in AE or AC treatments, perhaps, serving as a reservoir for recrudescence. Parasitemia in blood reached up to 60% in AE-treated mice during the recrudescence phase, leading to death of animals. A transient increase of up to 2-3% parasitemia was observed in AC-treatment, leading to protection and reversal of splenomegaly. A striking increase in spleen mRNA levels for TLR2, IL-10 and IgG-subclass antibodies but a decrease in those for INFγ and IL-12 was observed in AC-treatment. There was a striking increase in IL-10 and IgG subclass antibody levels but a decrease in INFγ levels in sera leading to protection against recrudescence. AC-treatment failed to protect against recrudescence in TLR2(-/-) and IL-10(-/-) animals. IL-10 injection to AE-treated wild type mice and AC-treated TLR2(-/-) mice was able to prolong survival. Blood from the recrudescence phase in AE-treatment, but not from AC-treatment, was able to reinfect and kill naïve animals. Sera from the recrudescence phase of AC-treated animals reacted with several parasite proteins compared to that from AE-treated animals. It is proposed that activation of TLR2-mediated innate immune response leading to enhanced IL-10 production and generation of anti-parasite antibodies contribute to protective immunity in AC-treated mice. These results indicate a potential for curcumin-based combination therapy to be tested for prevention of recrudescence in falciparum and relapse in vivax malaria.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(1):e29442. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0029442 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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