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Diversification in the Andes: Age and origins of South American Heliotropium lineages (Heliotropiaceae, Boraginales)

Freie Universität Berlin, Institut für Biologie - Botanik, Altensteinstraße 6, D-14195 Berlin, Germany.
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution (Impact Factor: 4.02). 06/2011; 61(1):90-102. DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2011.06.001
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ABSTRACT The uplift of the Andes was a major factor for plant diversification in South America and had significant effects on the climatic patterns at the continental scale. It was crucial for the formation of the arid environments in south-eastern and western South America. However, both the timing of the major stages of the Andean uplift and the onset of aridity in western South America remain controversial. In this paper we examine the hypothesis that the Andean South American groups of Heliotropium originated and diversified in response to Andean orogeny during the late Miocene and a the subsequent development of aridity. To this end, we estimate divergence times and likely biogeographical origins of the major clades in the phylogeny of Heliotropium, using both Bayesian and likelihood methods. Divergence times of all Andean clades in Heliotropium are estimated to be of late Miocene or Pliocene ages. At least three independent Andean diversification events can be recognized within Heliotropium. Timing of the diversification in the Andean lineages Heliotropium sects.Heliothamnus, Cochranea, Heliotrophytum, Hypsogenia, Plagiomeris, Platygyne clearly correspond to a rapid, late Miocene uplift of the Andes and a Pliocene development of arid environments in South America.

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Available from: Maximilian Weigend, Jul 28, 2015
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    • "A high diversity of Stachys species is also found in South America (SA), particularly in the Andean region. The powerful effect of the Andean orogeny has led to rapid diversification and radiations in the Andean flora (Luebert et al., 2011), and the Andean mountain ranges with their high altitude flora are the seat of a variety of species (Marx et al., 2010; Tank and Olmstead, 2009; Turchetto-Zolet et al., 2013). The rapid radiation in this region is comparable in many instances to that observed in oceanic islands (Drummond et al., 2012; Hughes and Eastwood, 2006). "
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    Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 06/2013; 69(1). DOI:10.1016/j.ympev.2013.05.023 · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    • "Several plant groups in the high Andes seem to follow this pattern, but in many cases they have originated in temperate environments outside South America (von Hagen & Kadereit , 2001, 2003; Bell & Donoghue, 2005; Hughes & Eastwood, 2006; Fritsch et al., 2008). A lowland, tropical origin for Andean groups, as shown here for some members of the pedoconnective clade of Melastomataceae , can also be inferred in tribe Miconieae (Michelangeli et al., 2008), and recently has been shown for other groups of angiosperms (Antonelli et al., 2009; Jabaily & Sytsma, 2011; Luebert, Hilger & Weigend, 2011; Simon et al., 2011). In the pedoconnective clade, this situation is seen in Monochaetum (found at high elevations in the northern Andes and mountains of Central America), Chaetolepis (paramos or northern South America, mountains in Costa Rica and summits of tepuis in the Guayana shield), and representatives of Tibouchina from the southern Andes and high elevations of the Mata Atlantica (see Fig. 2b clades Iiv and Iv). "
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    • "Widespread lowland taxa have given rise repeatedly to localized, high-elevation groups (Simpson, 1979; Emshwiller, 2002; Hall, 2005; Fjeldsa & Rahbek, 2006; Brumfield & Edwards, 2007; Ribas et al., 2007; Bonaccorso, 2009), although in some cases mid to high elevations can be the source for lowland taxa (Elias et al., 2009). Uplift of the Andes and subsequent climate change, whether increased aridity or shifting vegetation belts in response to glaciation, were major events in Heliotropium L. (Luebert et al., 2011), Chuquiraga Juss. (Ezcurra, 2002), Lepechinia Willd. "
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