Diversification in the Andes: Age and origins of South American Heliotropium lineages (Heliotropiaceae, Boraginales)

Freie Universität Berlin, Institut für Biologie - Botanik, Altensteinstraße 6, D-14195 Berlin, Germany.
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution (Impact Factor: 4.02). 06/2011; 61(1):90-102. DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2011.06.001
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ABSTRACT The uplift of the Andes was a major factor for plant diversification in South America and had significant effects on the climatic patterns at the continental scale. It was crucial for the formation of the arid environments in south-eastern and western South America. However, both the timing of the major stages of the Andean uplift and the onset of aridity in western South America remain controversial. In this paper we examine the hypothesis that the Andean South American groups of Heliotropium originated and diversified in response to Andean orogeny during the late Miocene and a the subsequent development of aridity. To this end, we estimate divergence times and likely biogeographical origins of the major clades in the phylogeny of Heliotropium, using both Bayesian and likelihood methods. Divergence times of all Andean clades in Heliotropium are estimated to be of late Miocene or Pliocene ages. At least three independent Andean diversification events can be recognized within Heliotropium. Timing of the diversification in the Andean lineages Heliotropium sects.Heliothamnus, Cochranea, Heliotrophytum, Hypsogenia, Plagiomeris, Platygyne clearly correspond to a rapid, late Miocene uplift of the Andes and a Pliocene development of arid environments in South America.

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Available from: Maximilian Weigend, Jul 28, 2015
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    • "A high diversity of Stachys species is also found in South America (SA), particularly in the Andean region. The powerful effect of the Andean orogeny has led to rapid diversification and radiations in the Andean flora (Luebert et al., 2011), and the Andean mountain ranges with their high altitude flora are the seat of a variety of species (Marx et al., 2010; Tank and Olmstead, 2009; Turchetto-Zolet et al., 2013). The rapid radiation in this region is comparable in many instances to that observed in oceanic islands (Drummond et al., 2012; Hughes and Eastwood, 2006). "
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    ABSTRACT: Due to its unique geological history and isolated location, the Hawaiian Archipelago provides an ideal setting for studies on biogeography, phylogeny and population biology. Species richness in these islands has been attributed to unique colonization events. The Hawaiian mints comprising of three endemic genera represent one of the largest radiations in the island. Previous studies have shown the Hawaiian mints to be nested within the dry-fruited Stachys, probably resulting from one or more hybridization events. Stachydeae, the largest tribe in the subfamily Lamioideae (Lamiaceae), is a taxonomically complex and widespread lineage exhibiting remarkable chromosomal diversity. In this paper we attempted at untangling the relationships between the New World and Hawaiian mint taxa, as well as investigate the origin and diversification of the mints in the New World. There seem to have been at least two independent migration events of Stachys to the New World during the Middle to Late Miocene and towards the beginning of the Pliocene, respectively. Results indicate incongruence between the rDNA and cpDNA phylogenies suggesting a reticulate, New World origin for the Hawaiian mints, although dispersal to Hawaii appears to have happened only once during the Pliocene. South American Stachys diversified from their Mesoamerican relatives around Late Pliocene and may also have arisen from similar reticulate events indicated by their intercalating position among the Mesoamerican Stachys species. Further insights into the phylogenetic relationships between the New World mints may be gathered through the study of low copy nuclear loci.
    Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 06/2013; 69(1). DOI:10.1016/j.ympev.2013.05.023 · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    • "Several plant groups in the high Andes seem to follow this pattern, but in many cases they have originated in temperate environments outside South America (von Hagen & Kadereit , 2001, 2003; Bell & Donoghue, 2005; Hughes & Eastwood, 2006; Fritsch et al., 2008). A lowland, tropical origin for Andean groups, as shown here for some members of the pedoconnective clade of Melastomataceae , can also be inferred in tribe Miconieae (Michelangeli et al., 2008), and recently has been shown for other groups of angiosperms (Antonelli et al., 2009; Jabaily & Sytsma, 2011; Luebert, Hilger & Weigend, 2011; Simon et al., 2011). In the pedoconnective clade, this situation is seen in Monochaetum (found at high elevations in the northern Andes and mountains of Central America), Chaetolepis (paramos or northern South America, mountains in Costa Rica and summits of tepuis in the Guayana shield), and representatives of Tibouchina from the southern Andes and high elevations of the Mata Atlantica (see Fig. 2b clades Iiv and Iv). "
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    ABSTRACT: In this study we present a phylogenetic analysis of Melastomeae, focusing on the Neotropical members of the tribe, a group of c. 70 species in 30 genera. In total, 236 species, including outgroups (Miconieae and Merianieae) and representatives of the Microlicieae and Rhexieae, were sequenced for the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (nrITS), and the plastid spacers accD‐psaI and psbK‐psbL. Melastomeae are not resolved as monophyletic because a group of mostly herbs and small trees with mostly tetramerous flowers (Acanthella, Aciotis, Acisanthera, Appendicularia, Comolia, Ernestia, Fritzschia, Marcetia, Macairea, Nepsera, Sandemania and Siphanthera) is nested between Rhexieae and Microlicieae. The remaining New World Melastomeae are not resolved as monophyletic, because a group of Old World genera (Osbeckia, Melastoma, Tristemma and allied genera) are nested in the tribe. The large genus Tibouchina is not monophyletic because Brachyotum, Bucquetia, Castratella, Centradenia, Chaetolepis, Heterocentron, Itatiaia, Microlepis, Monochaetum, Pilocosta, Svitramia, and Tibouchinopsis are nested in it, even although all of these genera are recovered as monophyletic. Each major clade has remarkable habitat and geographical integrity. The clade formed by Tibouchina and allies appears to have arisen in savannas in lowland South America and later expanded to forest, campo and high Andean biomes. At least two groups have radiated in eastern Brazil, and two other groups in the Andes and mountains of Central America. Niche conservatism and colonization of adjacent environments seem to have driven speciation in Neotropical Melastomeae. © 2012 The Linnean Society of London, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 2012, , –.
    Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 01/2013; 171(1). DOI:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2012.01295.x · 2.70 Impact Factor
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    • "Widespread lowland taxa have given rise repeatedly to localized, high-elevation groups (Simpson, 1979; Emshwiller, 2002; Hall, 2005; Fjeldsa & Rahbek, 2006; Brumfield & Edwards, 2007; Ribas et al., 2007; Bonaccorso, 2009), although in some cases mid to high elevations can be the source for lowland taxa (Elias et al., 2009). Uplift of the Andes and subsequent climate change, whether increased aridity or shifting vegetation belts in response to glaciation, were major events in Heliotropium L. (Luebert et al., 2011), Chuquiraga Juss. (Ezcurra, 2002), Lepechinia Willd. "
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    ABSTRACT: Puya (Bromeliaceae), with > 200 species, is a classic example of a recent, rapid species-level radiation in the Andes. To assess the biogeographical history of this primarily Andean species group and the evolution of different life histories, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) data were generated for 75 species from throughout the geographical range of the genus. Distribution data for latitudinal and elevational ranges were compiled for almost all species. The greatest number of species is found at mid-elevations and mid-latitudes south of the equator. The genus originated in central Chile and first moved into the Cordillera Oriental of the central Andes via inter-Andean valleys. Cladogenesis progressed in a general south to north direction tracking the final uplift of the Andes. All taxa north of the Western Andean Portal form a monophyletic group implying a single colonization of the northern Andes, with no subsequent transitions back south from the Northern Andes. Repeated evolutionary transitions of lineages up and down in elevation are suggestive of allopatric speciation driven by Pleistocene glaciation cycles. True semelparity evolved once in P. raimondii, with similar semi-semelparity evolving repeatedly in páramos of the northern Andes. Fieldwork and phylogenetic characterization of high-elevation Puya are priorities for future efforts.
    Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 01/2013; 171(1):201-224. DOI:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2012.01307.x · 2.70 Impact Factor
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