Endoscopic hyaluronic acid/dextranomer gel implantation is effective as first-line treatment of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in children: a single centre experience.
ABSTRACT Aim of the study was to analyse the success rate of endoscopic treatment (ET) using Dx/HA for primary vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in children and to assess the incidence of postoperative urinary tract infections (UTIs).
We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 103 children with VUR grade II-V who underwent ET, including children with additional urogenital malformations. Outcomes were verified with voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) and periodical urinalysis.
103 children with a total of 174 ureters underwent ET. 71 patients presented with bilateral VUR. Additional malformations were: duplex ureters (19 patients), posterior urethral valves (PUV) (12 patients), diverticulum (4 patients), neurogenic bladder and ectopic orifice. VUR grade was II in 52, III in 74, IV in 41 and V in 7 ureters, respectively. Postoperative VCUG demonstrated no VUR in 140 ureters (80%) and diminished VUR grade in an additional 18 ureters (total 91%). After a second ET, VCUG was negative in 28 ureters. The overall success rate was 98%. 30 patients had had more than 3 febrile and 67 patients had had 1-3 febrile UTIs before ET. 4 out of 103 patients (3.9%) had 1 febrile UTI within the first year of follow-up. Serious complications after ET were not noted.
ET is effective at eliminating VUR in children, even in patients with high-grade reflux, as well as in patients with VUR and additional malformations. Early intervention may reduce the incidence of UTIs and prevent long-term renal damage.
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ABSTRACT: To report our experience with ureteral obstruction after injection of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer (Dx/Ha) to treat vesicoureteral reflux, and analyze its possible causes, management and outcome. Retrospective review of patients undergoing injection of Dx/Ha. The charts of patients with clinically relevant ureteral obstruction were evaluated for indications, prior interventions, technique of injection and volume injected. Video recordings obtained during injection were analyzed to detect possible technical errors. Fifty-four patients (87 ureters) were treated with Dx/Ha injection in a 5-year period. Five ureters (5.7%) in five patients (9.3%) developed significant ureteral obstruction requiring intervention. Manifestations of obstruction included pain in two patients, urinary tract infections in one and loss of function in one. Increased serum creatinine was observed in a patient with a transplanted kidney. Four obstructions resolved spontaneously (two after percutaneous nephrostomy, two after placement of a ureteral stent) and one required reimplantation. Review of the videos did not reveal any deviation from the usual technique. The volumes injected in the obstructed cases (0.7-1.2 ml) were in the usual range. In this series, the incidence of post Dx/Ha ureteral obstruction was higher than previously reported. Although 4/5 cases resolved spontaneously, they required drainage to relieve symptoms or to improve renal function. Surgeons need to be aware of this complication and include its possible occurrence in the informed consent obtained prior to injection.Journal of pediatric urology 10/2011; 8(5):514-9. · 1.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to evaluate whether polylactic acid (PLA) microspheres and adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells have appropriate properties as an injectable bulking agent in urologic field. Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats (2-week-old) were randomized into two groups. A total of 0.05 mL of PLA microsphere suspension and 0.05 mL of PLA microsphere suspension mixed with PKH26-labeled SVF cells were injected into bladder wall in group I and group II, respectively. At 2, 8, 16, and 24 weeks of PLA microspheres injection, the volumes of implants were measured and bladder tissues including implants were analyzed and compared grossly and histologically between groups. The distant organs were examined histologically to determine migration of PLA microspheres. At 24 weeks of implantation, 65-70% of injected volume was maintained and there was no significant difference between groups. In histological analyses, injected PLA microspheres were localized in muscular layer of bladder without infiltration into adjacent layer. From 8 to 16 weeks of injection, hybrid tissues contained collagen and actin were observed between PLA microspheres and these findings were more clear in group II. PHK26-labeled SVF cells were identified by fluorescence microscopy at all time points. There was no migration of PLA microspheres to other organs and no abnormality in weight gain and hematologic values. These results suggest the possibility of PLA microspheres as a potentially useful bulking agent in urologic field. And further investigation is needed to know synergic effect of SVF cells. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2014.Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 06/2014; · 2.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: We aimed to review patients with a solitary kidney and ipsilateral vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) who underwent endoscopic correction of VUR (ECVUR) and to evaluate the prevalence of obstruction in this group of patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the files of all patients who underwent ECVUR at our center between January 2000 and June 2011. Only patients with a solitary kidney and ipsilateral VUR were included. RESULTS: Thirteen patients met our criteria. Two patients (15.38%) developed obstruction post-ECVUR. Both patients developed anuria in the first 24 h after surgery and required intervention. Two patients (15.38%) had increasing hydroureteronephrosis that was discovered on follow-up ultrasound, with no symptoms or signs of obstruction. Both were managed conservatively. CONCLUSION: Our results showed a higher percentage of obstruction post-ECVUR in patients with a solitary kidney (15.38%), who required immediate intervention. Thus, we recommend giving clear instructions to parents of patients with VUR and a solitary kidney post-ECVUR before discharge from the hospital regarding decreased urine output and loin pain. We recommend a follow-up ultrasound to rule out obstruction and detect new-onset hydronephrosis.Journal of pediatric urology 06/2013; · 1.38 Impact Factor