Hierarchical phosphorylation within the ankyrin repeat domain defines a phosphoregulatory loop that regulates Notch transcriptional activity.
ABSTRACT The Notch signal transduction pathway mediates important cellular functions through direct cell-to-cell contact. Deregulation of Notch activity can lead to an altered cell proliferation and has been linked to many human cancers. Casein kinase 2 (CK2), a ubiquitous kinase, regulates several cellular processes by phosphorylating proteins involved in signal transduction, gene expression, and protein synthesis. In this report we identify Notch(ICD) as a novel target of phosphorylation by CK2. Using mapping and mutational studies, we identified serine 1901, located in the ankyrin domain of Notch, as the target amino acid. Interestingly, phosphorylation of serine 1901 by CK2 appears to generate a second phosphorylation site at threonine 1898. Furthermore, threonine 1898 phosphorylation only occurs when Notch forms a complex with Mastermind and CSL. Phosphorylation of both threonine 1898 and serine 1901 resulted in decreased binding of the Notch-Mastermind-CSL ternary complex to DNA and consequently lower transcriptional activity. These data indicate that the phosphorylation of serine 1901 and threonine 1898 negatively regulates Notch function by dissociating the complex from DNA. This study identifies a new component involved in regulation of Notch(ICD) transcriptional activity, reinforcing the notion that a precise and tight regulation is required for this essential signaling pathway.
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ABSTRACT: Casein kinase 2 (CK2) is an oncogenic protein kinase which contributes to tumor development, proliferation, and suppression of apoptosis in multiple cancer types. The mechanism by which CK2 expression and activity leads to tumorigenesis in glioblastoma (GBM), a stage IV primary brain tumor, is being studied. Recent studies demonstrate that CK2 plays an important role in GBM formation and growth through the inhibition of tumor suppressors and activation of oncogenes. In addition, intriguing new reports indicate that CK2 may regulate GBM formation in a novel manner; CK2 may play a critical role in cancer stem cell (CSC) maintenance. Since glial CSCs have the ability to self-renew and initiate tumor growth, new treatments which target these CSCs are needed to treat this fatal disease. Inhibition of CK2 is potentially a novel method to inhibit GBM growth and reoccurrence by targeting the glial CSCs. A new, orally available, selective CK2 inhibitor, CX-4945 has had promising results when tested in cancer cell lines, in vivo xenograft models, and human clinical trials. The development of CK2 targeted inhibitors, starting with CX-4945, may lead to a new class of more effective cancer therapies.Journal of molecular and genetic medicine: an international journal of biomedical research 12/2013; 8(1).
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ABSTRACT: Stem cells are capable of both self-renewal (proliferation) and differentiation. Determining the regulatory mechanisms controlling the balance between stem cell proliferation and differentiation is not only an important biological question, but also holds the key for using stem cells as therapeutic agents. The Caenorhabditis elegans germ line has emerged as a valuable model to study the molecular mechanisms controlling stem cell behavior. In this study, we describe a large-scale RNAi screen that identified kin-10, which encodes the β subunit of protein kinase CK2, as a novel factor regulating stem cell proliferation in the C. elegans germ line. While a loss of kin-10 in an otherwise wild-type background results in a decrease in the number of proliferative cells, loss of kin-10 in sensitized genetic backgrounds results in a germline tumor. Therefore, kin-10 is not only necessary for robust proliferation, it also inhibits the proliferative fate. We found that kin-10's regulatory role in inhibiting the proliferative fate is carried out through the CK2 holoenzyme, rather than through a holoenzyme-independent function, and that it functions downstream of GLP-1/Notch signaling. We propose that a loss of kin-10 leads to a defect in CK2 phosphorylation of its downstream targets, resulting in abnormal activity of target protein(s) that are involved in the proliferative fate vs. differentiation decision. This eventually causes a shift towards the proliferative fate in the stem cell fate decision.Developmental Biology 05/2014; · 3.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Macrophages play critical roles in innate immune defense by sensing microbes using pattern-recognition receptors. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulates macrophages via TLR, which leads to activation of downstream signaling cascades. In this study, we investigated the roles of a conserved signaling pathway, Notch signaling, in regulating the downstream signaling cascades of the LPS/TLR4 pathways in macrophages. Using a phospho-proteomic approach and a gamma-secretase inhibitor (GSI) to suppress the processing and activation of Notch signaling, we identified regulator of G protein signaling 19 (RGS19) as a target protein whose phosphorylation was affected by GSI treatment. RGS19 is a guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase)-activating protein that functions to negatively regulate G protein-coupled receptors via Gαi/Gαq-linked signaling. Stimulation of RAW264.7 cells with LPS increased the level of the phosphorylated form of RGS19, while LPS stimulation in the presence of GSI decreased its level. GSI treatment did not alter the mRNA level of rgs19. Treatment with GSI or silencing of rgs19 in macrophages impaired the phosphorylation of Akt Thr308 upon LPS stimulation. Furthermore, targeted deletion of a DNA-binding protein and binding partner of the Notch receptor, RBP-Jκ/CSL, in macrophages resulted in delayed and decreased Akt phosphorylation. Because the PI3 K/Akt pathway regulates cell survival in various cell types, the cell cycle and cell death were assayed upon GSI treatment, phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3 K) inhibitor treatment or silencing of rgs19. GSI treatment resulted in decreased cell populations in the G1 and S phases, while it increased the cell population of cell death. Similarly, silencing of rgs19 resulted in a decreased cell population in the G1 phase and an increased cell population in the subG1 phase. Inhibition of Akt phosphorylation by PI3 K inhibitor in LPS-stimulated macrophages increased cell population in G1 phase, suggesting a possible cell cycle arrest. Taken together, these results indicate that Notch signaling positively regulates phosphorylation of Akt, possibly via phosphorylation of RGS19, and inhibition of both molecules affects the cell survival and cell cycle of macrophages upon LPS stimulation.Immunobiology 09/2014; · 2.81 Impact Factor