Hierarchical phosphorylation within the ankyrin repeat domain defines a phosphoregulatory loop that regulates Notch transcriptional activity.
ABSTRACT The Notch signal transduction pathway mediates important cellular functions through direct cell-to-cell contact. Deregulation of Notch activity can lead to an altered cell proliferation and has been linked to many human cancers. Casein kinase 2 (CK2), a ubiquitous kinase, regulates several cellular processes by phosphorylating proteins involved in signal transduction, gene expression, and protein synthesis. In this report we identify Notch(ICD) as a novel target of phosphorylation by CK2. Using mapping and mutational studies, we identified serine 1901, located in the ankyrin domain of Notch, as the target amino acid. Interestingly, phosphorylation of serine 1901 by CK2 appears to generate a second phosphorylation site at threonine 1898. Furthermore, threonine 1898 phosphorylation only occurs when Notch forms a complex with Mastermind and CSL. Phosphorylation of both threonine 1898 and serine 1901 resulted in decreased binding of the Notch-Mastermind-CSL ternary complex to DNA and consequently lower transcriptional activity. These data indicate that the phosphorylation of serine 1901 and threonine 1898 negatively regulates Notch function by dissociating the complex from DNA. This study identifies a new component involved in regulation of Notch(ICD) transcriptional activity, reinforcing the notion that a precise and tight regulation is required for this essential signaling pathway.
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ABSTRACT: Notch signaling plays a pivotal role in the regulation of many fundamental cellular processes, such as proliferation, stem cell maintenance and differentiation during embryonic and adult development. At the molecular level, ligand binding induces the proteolytic cleavage of the Notch receptor. The intracellular domain of Notch translocates subsequently into the nucleus, associates with the central transcription factor RBP-J and activates transcription. Although, this pathway is remarkably short, with no second messenger involved, it regulates expression of more than hundred target genes in a tissue-specific manner. This review summarizes recent studies on transcriptional and chromatin control mechanisms, which set the stage for specific expression of Notch target genes. Furthermore, we review how the canonical (RBP-J dependent) Notch pathway is fine-tuned by downstream effectors and feedback loops in mammals.Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 01/2012; 11(2):264-76. DOI:10.4161/cc.11.2.18995 · 5.01 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Notch signaling in the cardiovascular system is important during embryonic development, vascular repair of injury, and vascular pathology in humans. The vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) expresses multiple Notch receptors throughout its life cycle, and responds to Notch ligands as a regulatory mechanism of differentiation, recruitment to growing vessels, and maturation. The goal of this review is to provide an overview of the current understanding of the molecular basis for Notch regulation of VSMC phenotype. Further, we will explore Notch interaction with other signaling pathways important in VSMC.Frontiers in Physiology 04/2012; 3:81. DOI:10.3389/fphys.2012.00081
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ABSTRACT: The segmentation of the vertebrate body is laid down during early embryogenesis. The formation of signaling gradients, the periodic expression of genes of the Notch-, Fgf- and Wnt-pathways and their interplay in the unsegmented presomitic mesoderm (PSM) precedes the rhythmic budding of nascent somites at its anterior end, which later develops into epithelialized structures, the somites. Although many in silico models describing partial aspects of somitogenesis already exist, simulations of a complete causal chain from gene expression in the growth zone via the interaction of multiple cells to segmentation are rare. Here, we present an enhanced gene regulatory network (GRN) for mice in a simulation program that models the growing PSM by many virtual cells and integrates WNT3A and FGF8 gradient formation, periodic gene expression and Delta/Notch signaling. Assuming Hes7 as core of the somitogenesis clock and LFNG as modulator, we postulate a negative feedback of HES7 on Dll1 leading to an oscillating Dll1 expression as seen in vivo. Furthermore, we are able to simulate the experimentally observed wave of activated NOTCH (NICD) as a result of the interactions in the GRN. We esteem our model as robust for a wide range of parameter values with the Hes7 mRNA and protein decays exerting a strong influence on the core oscillator. Moreover, our model predicts interference between Hes1 and HES7 oscillators when their intrinsic frequencies differ. In conclusion, we have built a comprehensive model of somitogenesis with HES7 as core oscillator that is able to reproduce many experimentally observed data in mice.PLoS Computational Biology 06/2012; 8(6):e1002586. DOI:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002586 · 4.83 Impact Factor