Image-based screening identifies novel roles for IkappaB kinase and glycogen synthase kinase 3 in axonal degeneration.
ABSTRACT Axon degeneration is an active, evolutionarily conserved self-destruction program by which compromised axons fragment in response to varied insults. Unlike programmed cell death, axon degeneration is poorly understood. We have combined robotic liquid handling with automated microscopy and image analysis to create a robust screening platform to measure axon degeneration in mammalian primary neuronal cultures. Using this assay, we performed an unbiased screen of 480 bioactive compounds, identifying 11 that reproducibly delay fragmentation of severed axons in vitro, including two inhibitors of glycogen synthase kinase 3 and two inhibitors of IκB kinase. Knockdown of each of these targets by shRNA lentivirus also delays axon degeneration in vitro, further supporting their role in the axon degeneration program.
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ABSTRACT: Axonal degeneration is an active program of self-destruction that is observed in many physiological and pathological settings. In Wallerian degeneration slow (wlds) mice, Wallerian degeneration in response to axonal injury is delayed because of a mutation that results in overexpression of a chimeric protein (Wlds) composed of the ubiquitin assembly protein Ufd2a and the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) biosynthetic enzyme Nmnat1. We demonstrate that increased Nmnat activity is responsible for the axon-sparing activity of the Wlds protein. Furthermore, we demonstrate that SIRT1, a mammalian ortholog of Sir2, is the downstream effector of increased Nmnat activity that leads to axonal protection. These findings suggest that novel therapeutic strategies directed at increasing the supply of NAD and/or Sir2 activation may be effective for treatment of diseases characterized by axonopathy and neurodegeneration.Science 09/2004; 305(5686):1010-3. · 31.20 Impact Factor
Article: Mitogen inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta in intact cells via serine 9 phosphorylation.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3), a protein-serine kinase implicated in cell-fate determination and differentiation, phosphorylates several regulatory proteins that are activated by dephosphorylation in response to hormones or growth factors. GSK-3 beta is phosphorylated in vitro at serine 9 by p70 S6 kinase and p90rsk-1, resulting in its inhibition [Sutherland, Leighton, and Cohen (1993) Biochem. J. 296, 15-19]. Using HeLa cells expressing GSK-3 beta or a mutant containing alanine at residue 9, we demonstrate that serine 9 is modified in intact cells and is targeted specifically by p90rsk-1, and that phosphorylation leads to loss of activity. Since p90rsk-1 is directly activated by mitogen-activated protein kinases, agonists of this pathway, such as insulin, repress GSK-3 function.Biochemical Journal 12/1994; 303 ( Pt 3):701-4. · 4.90 Impact Factor
Article: Neural precursor cells are protected from apoptosis induced by trophic factor withdrawal or genotoxic stress by inhibitors of glycogen synthase kinase 3.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Mechanisms controlling the survival of neural precursor cells (NPCs) are critical during brain development, in adults for neuron replenishment, and after transplantation for neuron replacement. This investigation found that glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) promotes apoptotic signaling in cultured NPCs derived from embryonic mouse brain subjected to two common apoptotic conditions, trophic factor withdrawal and genotoxic stress. Trophic factor withdrawal activated GSK3 and the key apoptosis mediators Bax and caspase-3. Pharmacological inhibition of GSK3 activity produced dramatic reductions in the activation of Bax and caspase-3 and NPC death after trophic factor withdrawal. Trophic factor withdrawal-induced apoptosis was delayed in Bax knock-out NPCs, but GSK3 inhibitors provided additional protection. Genotoxic stress induced by camptothecin treatment of NPCs stabilized p53, which formed a complex with GSK3beta and activated Bax and caspase-3. Camptothecin-induced activation of caspase-3 was reduced by GSK3 inhibitors in both bax(+)(/)(+) and bax(-/-) NPCs. Thus, NPCs are sensitive to loss of trophic factors and genotoxic stress, and inhibitors of GSK3 are capable of enhancing NPC survival.Journal of Biological Chemistry 09/2007; 282(31):22856-64. · 4.77 Impact Factor