Signals between a cell and its environment are often transmitted through membrane proteins; therefore, many membrane proteins, including G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and ion channels, are important drug targets. Structural information about membrane proteins remains limited owing to challenges in protein expression, purification and the selection of membrane-mimicking systems that will retain protein structure and function. This review describes recent advances in solution NMR applied to the structural study of integral membrane proteins. The examples herein demonstrate that solution NMR spectroscopy will play a unique role not only in structural analysis, but also drug discovery of membrane proteins.
"terminal region is close to or embedded in the cell membrane. Studying the structure of this region in cell membrane or a membrane-mimicking system such as detergent micelles will simulate its structural information under the physiological conditions . We then made another construct NS4B 1-125 containing residues 1-125 of NS4B followed by seven non-viral residues (EHHHHH) at the C-terminus to facilitate protein purification (Fig. 1B). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The transmembrane NS4B protein of dengue virus (DENV) is a validated antiviral target that plays important roles in viral replication and invasion of innate immune response. The first 125 amino acids of DENV NS4B are sufficient for inhibition of alpha/beta interferon signaling. Resistance mutations to NS4B inhibitors are all mapped to the first 125 amino acids. In this study, we expressed and purified a protein representing the first 125 amino acids of NS4B (NS4B1-125). This recombinant NS4B1-125 protein was reconstituted into detergent micelles. Solution NMR spectroscopy demonstrated that there are five helices (α1 to α5) present in NS4B1-125. Dynamic studies, together with a paramagnetic relaxation enhancement experiment demonstrated that four helices, α2, α3, α4, and α5 are embedded in the detergent micelles. Comparison of wild type and V63I mutant (a mutation that confers resistance to NS4B inhibitor) NS4B1-125 proteins demonstrated that V63I mutation did not cause significant conformational changes, however, V63 may have a molecular interaction with residues in the α5 transmembrane domain under certain conditions. The structural and dynamic information obtained in study is helpful to understand the structure and function of NS4B.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance studies of membrane proteins are facilitated by the increased stability that trapping with amphipols confers to most of them as compared to detergent solutions. They have yielded information on the state of folding of the proteins, their areas of contact with the polymer, their dynamics, water accessibility, and the structure of protein-bound ligands. They benefit from the diversification of amphipol chemical structures and the availability of deuterated amphipols. The advantages and constraints of working with amphipols are discussed and compared to those associated with other non-conventional environments, such as bicelles and nanodiscs.
"of membrane proteins (MPs) give access to such important biological information as their secondary and tertiary structure, their dynamics, the way they recognize their ligands, etc. Traditionally, these studies are performed in aqueous detergent solutions (Kang and Li 2011). However, the destabilizing character of detergents, the high concentrations of them that is required for NMR experiments, the relatively high temperatures at which those are carried out and their long duration combine to make it difficult to prepare stable enough MP samples. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Amphipols are short amphipathic polymers that can substitute for detergents at the hydrophobic surface of membrane proteins (MPs), keeping them soluble in the absence of detergents while stabilizing them. The most widely used amphipol, known as A8-35, is comprised of a polyacrylic acid (PAA) main chain grafted with octylamine and isopropylamine. Among its many applications, A8-35 has proven particularly useful for solution-state NMR studies of MPs, for which it can be desirable to eliminate signals originating from the protons of the surfactant. In the present work, we describe the synthesis and properties of perdeuterated A8-35 (perDAPol). Perdeuterated PAA was obtained by radical polymerization of deuterated acrylic acid. It was subsequently grafted with deuterated amines, yielding perDAPol. The number-average molar mass of hydrogenated and perDAPol, ~4 and ~5 kDa, respectively, was deduced from that of their PAA precursors, determined by size exclusion chromatography in tetrahydrofuran following permethylation. Electrospray ionization-ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry measurements show the molar mass and distribution of the two APols to be very similar. Upon neutron scattering, the contrast match point of perDAPol is found to be ~120 % D2O. In (1)H-(1)H nuclear overhauser effect NMR spectra, its contribution is reduced to ~6 % of that of hydrogenated A8-35, making it suitable for extended uses in NMR spectroscopy. PerDAPol ought to also be of use for inelastic neutron scattering studies of the dynamics of APol-trapped MPs, as well as small-angle neutron scattering and analytical ultracentrifugation.
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