Comminution of ibuprofen to produce nano-particles for rapid dissolution.
ABSTRACT A critical problem associated with poorly soluble drugs is low and variable bioavailability derived from slow dissolution and erratic absorption. The preparation of nano-formulations has been identified as an approach to enhance the rate and extent of drug absorption for compounds demonstrating limited aqueous solubility. A new technology for the production of nano-particles using high speed, high efficiency processes that can rapidly generate nano-particles with rapid dissolution rate has been developed. Size reduction of a low melting ductile model compound was achieved in periods less than 1h. Particle size reduction of ibuprofen using this methodology resulted in production of crystalline particles with average diameter of approximately 270nm. Physical stability studies showed that the nano-suspension remained homogeneous with slight increases in mean particle size, when stored at room temperature and under refrigerated storage conditions 2-8°C for up to 2 days. Powder containing crystalline drug was prepared by spray-drying ibuprofen nano-suspensions with mannitol dissolved in the aqueous phase. Dissolution studies showed similar release rates for the nano-suspension and powder which were markedly improved compared to a commercially available drug product. Ibuprofen nano-particles could be produced rapidly with smaller sizes achieved at higher suspension concentrations. Particles produced in water with stabilisers demonstrated greatest physical stability, whilst rapid dissolution was observed for the nano-particles isolated in powder form.
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ABSTRACT: The objective of this research was to investigate physicochemical properties of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) that influence cyclodextrin complexation through experimental and computational studies. Native β-cyclodextrin (B-CD) and two hydroxypropyl derivatives were first evaluated by conventional phase solubility experiments for their ability to complex four poorly water-soluble nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Differential scanning calorimetry was used to confirm complexation. Secondly, molecular modeling was used to estimate Log P and aqueous solubility (S o) of the NSAIDs. Molecular dynamics simulations (MDS) were used to investigate the thermodynamics and geometry of drug-CD cavity docking. NSAID solubility increased linearly with increasing CD concentration for the two CD derivatives (displaying an AL profile), whereas increases in drug solubility were low and plateaued in the B-CD solutions (type B profile). The calculated Log P and S o of the NSAIDs were in good concordance with experimental values reported in the literature. Side chain substitutions on the B-CD moiety did not significantly influence complexation. Explicitly, complexation and the associated solubility increase were mainly dependent on the chemical structure of the NSAID. MDS indicated that each NSAID-CD complex had a distinct geometry. Moreover, complexing energy had a large, stabilizing, and fairly constant hydrophobic component for a given CD across the NSAIDs, while electrostatic and solvation interaction complex energies were quite variable but smaller in magnitude.AAPS PharmSciTech 04/2014; · 1.78 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The direct effect of intermolecular association between ibuprofen and diethylaminoethyl dextran (Ddex) and the novel 'melt-in situ granulation-crystallization' technique on the solubility, dose distribution, in vitro dissolution kinetics and pre-compression characteristics of the ibuprofen-Ddex conjugate crystanules have been investigated using various mathematical equations and statistical moments. The research intention was to elucidate the mechanisms of ibuprofen solubilization, densification and release from the conjugate crystanules as well as its dose distribution in order to provide fundamental knowledge on important physicochemical, thermodynamic and system-specific parameters which are key indices for the optimization of drug-polymer conjugate design for the delivery of poorly soluble drugs. The process of melt-in situ-granulation-crystallization reduced the solubility slightly compared with pure ibuprofen, however, the ibuprofen-Ddex conjugate crystanules exhibited increased ibuprofen solubility to a maximum of 2.47×10-1mM (at 1.25×10-4mM Ddex) and 8.72×10-1mM (at 6.25×10-4mM Ddex) at 25 and 37°C, respectively. Beyond these concentrations of Ddex ibuprofen solubility decreased steadily due to stronger bond strength of the conjugate crystanules. The enthalpy-entropy compensation plot suggests a dominant entropy-driven mechanism of solubilization. In the same vein, the addition of Ddex increased the rate and extent of in vitro ibuprofen release from the conjugate crystanule to 100% within 168h at Ddex concentration of 1.56×10-4mM, followed by a decrease with Ddex concentration. The conjugate crystanules exhibited controlled and extended-complete release profile which appeared to be dictated by the concentration of the Ddex and its strong affinity for ibuprofen. A comparison of the real experimental with the predicted data using artificial neural network shows excellent correlation between solubility and dissolution profiles (average error=0.2348%). Heckel, Kawakita, Cooper-Eaton and Kuno equations were employed to determine the mechanism of densification during tapping process. Ddex in the crystanules consistently improved particle rearrangement in the order of 2.5-7 folds compared with pure ibuprofen and stabilized ibuprofen against fragmentation during tapping process. Primary and secondary particle rearrangements were the prominent mechanisms of densification while deformation and fragmentation did not occur. Lower concentrations of Ddex below its critical granular concentration (<6.25×10-4mM) hindered plastic deformation and fragmentation, however, the summation of primary and secondary rearrangement parameters was greater than unity suggesting that the overall rearrangement of the conjugate crystanules cannot be explained exclusively by these two steps. This study has demonstrated the formulation of a novel ibuprofen-polymer conjugate which exhibited improved dose distribution and pre-compression characteristics as well as controlled and extended-complete release profiles - a potential drug delivery strategy for poorly soluble drugs.International Journal of Pharmaceutics 06/2014; 471(1-2):453-477. · 3.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Particle size reduction can be used for enhancing the dissolution of poorly water-soluble drugs in order to enhance bioavailability. In nanosuspensions, the particle size of the drug is reduced to nanometer size. Nanosuspensions after downstream processing into drug products have successfully shown its impact on formulation design, the augmentation of product life cycle, patent life, and therapeutic efficacy. Formulation considerations for the nanosuspension formulation, its processing into a solid form, and aspects of material characterization are discussed. Technology assessments and feasibility of upstream processes for nanoparticle creation, and subsequently transformation into a drug product via the downstream processes have been reviewed. This paper aims to bridge formulation and process considerations along with patent reviews and may provide further insight into understanding the science and the white space. An analysis of current patent outlook and future trends is described to fully understand the limitations and opportunities in intellectual property generation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm SciJournal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 08/2014; · 3.13 Impact Factor