Structural and functional modulation of early healing of full-thickness superficial digital flexor tendon rupture in rabbits by repeated subcutaneous administration of exogenous human recombinant basic fibroblast growth factor.
ABSTRACT The present study was designed to investigate the effects of basic fibroblast growth factor on the healing of the acute phase of complete superficial digital flexor tendon rupture in rabbits. A total of 40 skeletally mature female white New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into 2 equal groups of injured treated and injured control. After tenotomy and surgical anastomosis, using a modified Kessler and running pattern, the injured legs were placed in casts for 14 days, and basic fibroblast growth factor was injected subcutaneously over the lesion on days 3, 7, and 10 after injury. The injured control rabbits received a normal saline injection in a similar protocol. The rabbits' weight, tendon diameter, clinical signs, radiographs, and ultrasound scans were evaluated weekly. The rabbits were killed 28 days after injury, and the tendons were evaluated at the macroscopic, histopathologic, and ultrastructural levels and for biomechanical and the percentage of dry weight analysis. Treatment significantly reduced the diameter and increased the echogenicity and dry weight content and enhanced the maturation rate of the tenoblasts, fibrillogenesis, collagen fibril diameter, fibrillar density, tensile strength, and stiffness and stress of the injured tendons. Treatment with basic fibroblast growth factor was effective in restoring the morphologic and biomechanical properties of the injured superficial digital flexor tendon and could be valuable in clinical trial studies.
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ABSTRACT: Healing and regeneration of large bone defects leading to non-unions is a great concern in orthopedic surgery. Since auto- and allografts have limitations, bone tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM) has attempted to solve this issue. In TERM, healing promotive factors are necessary to regulate the several important events during healing. An ideal treatment strategy should provide osteoconduction, osteoinduction, osteogenesis, and osteointegration of the graft or biomaterials within the healing bone. Since many materials have osteoconductive properties, only a few biomaterials have osteoinductive properties which are important for osteogenesis and osteointegration. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are potent inductors of the osteogenic and angiogenic activities during bone repair. The BMPs can regulate the production and activity of some growth factors which are necessary for the osteogenesis. Since the introduction of BMP, it has added a valuable tool to the surgeon’s possibilities and is most commonly used in bone defects. Despite significant evidences suggesting their potential benefit on bone healing, there are some evidences showing their side effects such as ectopic bone formation, osteolysis and problems related to cost effectiveness. Bone tissue engineering may create a local environment, using the delivery systems, which enables BMPs to carry out their activities and to lower cost and complication rate associated with BMPs. This review represented the most important concepts and evidences regarding the role of BMPs on bone healing and regeneration from basic to clinical application. The major advantages and disadvantages of such biologic compounds together with the BMPs substitutes are also discussed. VC 2014 BioFactors, 00(00):000–000, 2014BioFactors 09/2014; 40(5):459–481. DOI:10.1002/biof.1177 · 3.00 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Tendinopathy is a debilitating musculoskeletal condition which can cause significant pain and lead to complete rupture of the tendon, which often requires surgical repair. Due in part to the large spectrum of tendon pathologies, these disorders continue to be a clinical challenge. Animal models are often used in this field of research as they offer an attractive framework to examine the cascade of processes that occur throughout both tendon pathology and repair. This review discusses the structural, mechanical, and biological changes that occur throughout tendon pathology in animal models, as well as strategies for the improvement of tendon healing.Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2014;3:193–202.06/2014; 3(6):193-202. DOI:10.1302/2046-3758.36.2000281
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ABSTRACT: This study investigated the effects of hybridized micro and nano structured collagen implants on tendon healing in an experimental tendon injury in rabbits. Fifty mature male New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into two groups of treated and control. Two cm of the left Achilles tendon were discarded. In the treated group, a 3-dimensional (3D) collagen implant was engineered and implanted in the defect area. No implant was used in the control group. At day 120 after injury, the Achilles tendon of the animals were ultrasonographically (days 0-120 after injury) and radiographically (day 120 after injury) examined, and the animals were euthanized. The tendons were dissected and used for gross pathological, histopathological, ultra-structural and biomechanical investigations. Application of the collagen implant significantly increased the diameter of the newly regenerated tissue in the defect area compared to the control tendons. Treatment also significantly increased the echogenicity and homogeneity of the injured area, the diameter of the collagen fibrils and fibers, maturity of the tenoblasts, number of tenocytes, collagen density, alignment, ultimate and yield load, stiffness, stress and modulus of elasticity. The collagen implants were almost totally absorbed 120 days after surgery. No inflammatory reaction or tissue degeneration or necrosis was evident in the treated tendons compared to the control ones. 3D collagen implants produced a newly regenerated tendinous tissue at the defect area that was morphologically and biomechanically superior to the control group. This collagen implant was biocompatible and biodegradable with high bio-safety in rabbits.Journal of biological regulators and homeostatic agents 07/2014; 28(3):381-97. · 2.41 Impact Factor