Meta-analysis of randomized trials comparing the patency of covered and uncovered self-expandable metal stents for palliation of distal malignant bile duct obstruction
ABSTRACT Self-expandable metal stents (SEMSs) are used for palliation of malignant biliary obstruction.
We performed a meta-analysis to compare stent patency and stent survival of covered SEMSs (CSEMSs) and uncovered SEMSs (USEMSs) in patients with unresectable distal malignant biliary obstruction.
A comprehensive search of several databases (from each database's earliest inclusive dates to November 2010, any language, and any population) was conducted. The search identified 337 potential abstracts and titles, of which 16 were retrieved in full text. Review of references identified 17 additional studies. We found 5 multicenter, randomized trials involving 781 patients.
Placement of covered and uncovered SEMSs for treatment of distal malignant biliary obstruction.
Stent patency, stent survival, patient survival, and cause for stent dysfunction (ingrowth, overgrowth, migration, and sludge formation).
The median length of follow-up was 212 days. Compared with USEMSs, CSEMSs were associated with significantly prolonged stent patency (weighted mean difference [WMD] 60.56 days; 95% confidence interval [CI], 25.96, 95.17; I² = 0%) and longer stent survival (WMD 68.87 days; 95% CI, 25.64, 112.11; I(2) = 79%). Stent migration, tumor overgrowth, and sludge formation were significantly higher with CSEMSs (relative risk [RR] 8.11; 95% CI, 1.47, 44.76; I² = 0%), (RR 2.02; 95% CI, 1.08, 3.78; I² = 0%), (RR 2.89; 95% CI, 1.27, 6.55; I² = 0%).
Relatively low number of studies available and the fact that 2 of the 5 studies were from one institution. Also, the limited availability of some stents used in the trials may limit the applicability of these results.
CSEMSs have a significantly longer duration of patency compared with USEMSs in patients with distal malignant biliary obstruction. Stent dysfunction occurs at a similar rate, although there is a trend toward later obstruction with CSEMSs.
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ABSTRACT: Covered biliary metal stents have been introduced for the purpose of overcoming tumor ingrowth and treatment of benign biliary stricture. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biodurability of three commercially available biliary metal stent covering materials [e-PTFE (expanded polytetrafluoroethylene), silicone, and polyurethane] in a bile flow phantom. By operation of a peristaltic pump, human bile was circulated continuously in an experimental perfusion system containing covered metal stents. Each stent was removed, respectively, 1, 2, 4, and 6 months after bile exposure. We performed a gross inspection of the covered stents. The covering membrane was detached from the stent and observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Finally, we measured tensile and tear strength of the membranes. Bile-staining of the membrane showed gradual progression after bile exposure; however, progress was the fastest in e-PTFE. SEM examination showed that the polyurethane surface was smooth, and the silicone surface was relatively smooth. However, e-PTFE had a rough and uneven surface. After bile exposure, there were no significant changes in polyurethane and silicone; however, biofilms and microcracks were observed in e-PTFE. In contrast to a gradual decrease of tensile/tear strength of polyurethane and silicone, those of e-PTFE showed a rapid reduction despite of the strongest baseline tensile and tear strength. e-PTFE tended to form biofilms more frequently than polyurethane and silicone during bile exposure. e-PTFE seemed to be less durable than silicone and polyurethane, however, as clinically applicable material because of strong absolute tensile/tear strengths.Digestive Diseases and Sciences 11/2011; 57(4):1056-63. DOI:10.1007/s10620-011-1958-6 · 2.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Biliary drainage with biliary stent placement is the treatment of choice for palliation in patients with malignant biliary obstruction caused by unresectable neoplasms. In such patients, the endoscopic approach can be initially used with percutaneous radiological intervention. In patients with unresectable malignant distal bile duct obstructions, endoscopic biliary drainage with biliary stent placement has now become the main and least invasive palliative modality, which has been proven to be more effective in >80% of cases with lower morbidity than surgery, and perhaps may provide a survival benefit. In patients with unresectable malignant hilar obstruction, the endoscopic approach for biliary drainage with biliary stent placement has also been considered as the treatment of choice. There is still a lack of clear consensus on the use of covered versus uncovered metal stents in malignant distal bile duct obstructions and plastic versus metal stents and unilateral versus bilateral drainage in malignant hilar obstructions.12/2011; 44(2):76-86. DOI:10.5946/ce.2011.44.2.76
- Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology 12/2011; 9(1):10-1. DOI:10.1038/nrgastro.2011.246 · 10.81 Impact Factor