Fate and Transport of Glyphosate and Aminomethylphosphonic Acid in Surface Waters of Agricultural Basins

US Geological Survey, Pearl, MS, USA.
Pest Management Science (Impact Factor: 2.69). 01/2012; 68(1):16-30. DOI: 10.1002/ps.2212
Source: PubMed


Glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine] is a herbicide used widely throughout the world in the production of many crops and is heavily used on soybeans, corn and cotton. Glyphosate is used in almost all agricultural areas of the United States, and the agricultural use of glyphosate has increased from less than 10 000 Mg in 1992 to more than 80 000 Mg in 2007. The greatest intensity of glyphosate use is in the midwestern United States, where applications are predominantly to genetically modified corn and soybeans. In spite of the increase in usage across the United States, the characterization of the transport of glyphosate and its degradate aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) on a watershed scale is lacking.
Glyphosate and AMPA were frequently detected in the surface waters of four agricultural basins. The frequency and magnitude of detections varied across basins, and the load, as a percentage of use, ranged from 0.009 to 0.86% and could be related to three general characteristics: source strength, rainfall runoff and flow route.
Glyphosate use in a watershed results in some occurrence in surface water; however, the watersheds most at risk for the offsite transport of glyphosate are those with high application rates, rainfall that results in overland runoff and a flow route that does not include transport through the soil.

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Available from: Richard H. Coupe, Apr 21, 2015
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    • "Numerous commercial formulations with glyphosate as the active ingredient have become popular worldwide, owing to their effective action, low toxicity to mammals, and reduced cost to the farmer (Corbera et al., 2005). Glyphosate and its principal degradation product, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), have been found in natural water sources in many countries (Coupe et al., 2012). The glyphosate (commercial formulation Roundup ® ) concentration used in rice and soybean cultures in Southern Brazil ranges from 0.36 to 2.16 mg/L (Rodrigues & Almeida, 2005). "
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    Neotropical Ichthyology 01/2015; 13(1):229-236. DOI:10.1590/1982-0224-20140082 · 0.80 Impact Factor
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    • "This is supported by the findings of Peruzzo et al. (2008), who found that rain causes a reduction in the concentration of glyphosate. Rain thus seems to facilitate the mobility and leaching of glyphosate from agricultural fields to water bodies but can also reduce the final environmental concentration by dilution (Edwards et al. 1980; Feng et al. 1990; Coupe et al. 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: Glyphosate is an agrochemical widely used to control weeds. However, glyphosate spreads to water bodies by spray-drift, run-off and leaching, potentially causing detrimental effects on non-target biota. There is no information on the occurrence of this herbicide in water bodies near crop fields in Mexico, although it is the most commonly used pesticide in this country. To fill this gap, we quantified glyphosate in water bodies from twenty-three locations, including natural protected areas and agricultural areas in southern Mexico, during the dry and the rainy seasons. We expected (1) higher concentrations during the dry season due to reduced dilution by precipitation and, (2) absence of glyphosate in the protected areas. In agreement with our expectation, concentration of glyphosate was higher during the dry season (up to 36.7 μg/L). Nonetheless, glyphosate was detected in all samples-including natural protected areas. These results emphasize the need for an evaluation of the impact of glyphosate on native species as well as regulate its use.
    Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 07/2014; 93(3). DOI:10.1007/s00128-014-1328-0 · 1.26 Impact Factor
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    • "Larger %AMPA values are expected when rainfall runoff events occur later in the season or when there is a larger reservoir of available AMPA than glyphosate in the soil reservoir or when there is sufficient travel distance/residence time between source applications and transport to surface water to allow for the degradation of glyphosate to AMPA. Coupe et al. (2012) also suggest that the %AMPA values should increase with increases in drainage area. In this study, %AMPA values from ditch and drain; and lake, pond, and wetland samples both ranged from 0 to 100% with median values of 63 and 42%, respectively. "
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    ABSTRACT: Glyphosate use in the United States increased from less than 5,000 to more than 80,000 metric tons/yr between 1987 and 2007. Glyphosate is popular due to its ease of use on soybean, cotton, and corn crops that are genetically modified to tolerate it, utility in no-till farming practices, utility in urban areas, and the perception that it has low toxicity and little mobility in the environment. This compilation is the largest and most comprehensive assessment of the environmental occurrence of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in the United States conducted to date, summarizing the results of 3,732 water and sediment and 1,018 quality assurance samples collected between 2001 and 2010 from 38 states. Results indicate that glyphosate and AMPA are usually detected together, mobile, and occur widely in the environment. Glyphosate was detected without AMPA in only 2.3% of samples, whereas AMPA was detected without glyphosate in 17.9% of samples. Glyphosate and AMPA were detected frequently in soils and sediment, ditches and drains, precipitation, rivers, and streams; and less frequently in lakes, ponds, and wetlands; soil water; and groundwater. Concentrations of glyphosate were below the levels of concern for humans or wildlife; however, pesticides are often detected in mixtures. Ecosystem effects of chronic low-level exposures to pesticide mixtures are uncertain. The environmental health risk of low-level detections of glyphosate, AMPA, and associated adjuvants and mixtures remain to be determined.
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