Mutations in NOTCH2 in families with Hajdu-Cheney syndrome.
ABSTRACT Hajdu-Cheney syndrome (HCS) is a rare genetic disorder whose hallmark is acro-osteolysis, shortening of terminal phalanges, and generalized osteoporosis. We assembled a cohort of seven families with the condition and performed whole exome resequencing on a selected set of affected patients. One protein-coding gene, NOTCH2, carried heterozygous truncating variants in all patients and their affected family members. Our results replicate recently published studies of HCS and further support this as the causal gene for the disorder. In total, we identified five novel and one previously reported mutation, all clustered near the carboxyl terminus of the gene, suggesting an allele specific genotype-phenotype effect since other mutations in NOTCH2 have been reported to cause a form of Alagille syndrome. Notch-mediated signaling is known to play a role in bone metabolism. Our results support a potential therapeutic role for Notch pathways in treatment of osteoporosis.
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ABSTRACT: Inherited monogenic disease has an enormous impact on the well-being of children and their families. Over half of the children living with one of these conditions are without a molecular diagnosis because of the rarity of the disease, the marked clinical heterogeneity, and the reality that there are thousands of rare diseases for which causative mutations have yet to be identified. It is in this context that in 2010 a Canadian consortium was formed to rapidly identify mutations causing a wide spectrum of pediatric-onset rare diseases by using whole-exome sequencing. The FORGE (Finding of Rare Disease Genes) Canada Consortium brought together clinicians and scientists from 21 genetics centers and three science and technology innovation centers from across Canada. From nation-wide requests for proposals, 264 disorders were selected for study from the 371 submitted; disease-causing variants (including in 67 genes not previously associated with human disease; 41 of these have been genetically or functionally validated, and 26 are currently under study) were identified for 146 disorders over a 2-year period. Here, we present our experience with four strategies employed for gene discovery and discuss FORGE’s impact in a number of realms, from clinical diagnostics to the broadening of the phenotypic spectrum of many diseases to the biological insight gained into both disease states and normal human development. Lastly, on the basis of this experience, we discuss the way forward for rare-disease genetic discovery both in Canada and internationally.01/2014; 94(6):809–817.
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ABSTRACT: SHORT syndrome is a rare, multisystem disease characterized by short stature, anterior-chamber eye anomalies, characteristic facial features, lipodystrophy, hernias, hyperextensibility, and delayed dentition. As part of the FORGE (Finding of Rare Disease Genes) Canada Consortium, we studied individuals with clinical features of SHORT syndrome to identify the genetic etiology of this rare disease. Whole-exome sequencing in a family trio of an affected child and unaffected parents identified a de novo frameshift insertion, c.1906_1907insC (p.Asn636Thrfs(∗)18), in exon 14 of PIK3R1. Heterozygous mutations in exon 14 of PIK3R1 were subsequently identified by Sanger sequencing in three additional affected individuals and two affected family members. One of these mutations, c.1945C>T (p.Arg649Trp), was confirmed to be a de novo mutation in one affected individual and was also identified and shown to segregate with the phenotype in an unrelated family. The other mutation, a de novo truncating mutation (c.1971T>G [p.Tyr657(∗)]), was identified in another affected individual. PIK3R1 is involved in the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) signaling cascade and, as such, plays an important role in cell growth, proliferation, and survival. Functional studies on lymphoblastoid cells with the PIK3R1 c.1906_1907insC mutation showed decreased phosphorylation of the downstream S6 target of the PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway. Our findings show that PIK3R1 mutations are the major cause of SHORT syndrome and suggest that the molecular mechanism of disease might involve downregulation of the PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway.The American Journal of Human Genetics 06/2013; · 11.20 Impact Factor
Article: Hajdu-Cheney syndrome: a review.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Hajdu Cheney Syndrome (HCS), Orpha 955, is a rare disease characterized by acroosteolysis, severe osteoporosis, short stature, specific craniofacial features, wormian bones, neurological symptoms, cardiovascular defects and polycystic kidneys. HCS is rare and is inherited as autosomal dominant although many sporadic cases have been reported. HCS is associated with mutations in exon 34 of NOTCH2 upstream the PEST domain that lead to the creation of a truncated and stable NOTCH2 protein with enhanced NOTCH2 signaling activity. Although the number of cases with NOTCH2 mutations reported are limited, it would seem that the diagnosis of HCS can be established by sequence analysis of exon 34 of NOTCH2. Notch receptors are single-pass transmembrane proteins that determine cell fate, and play a critical role in skeletal development and homeostasis. Dysregulation of Notch signaling is associated with skeletal developmental disorders. There is limited information about the mechanisms of the bone loss and acroosteolysis in HCS making decisions regarding therapeutic intervention difficult. Bone antiresorptive and anabolic agents have been tried to treat the osteoporosis, but their benefit has not been established. In conclusion, Notch regulates skeletal development and bone remodeling, and gain-of-function mutations of NOTCH2 are associated with HCS.Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 12/2014; 9(1):200. · 3.96 Impact Factor