Metabolism and tissue distribution of sulforaphane in Nrf2 knockout and wild-type mice.
ABSTRACT To determine the metabolism and tissue distribution of the dietary chemoprotective agent sulforaphane following oral administration to wild-type and Nrf2 knockout (Nrf2(-/-)) mice.
Male and female wild-type and Nrf2(-/-) mice were given sulforaphane (5 or 20 μmoles) by oral gavage; plasma, liver, kidney, small intestine, colon, lung, brain and prostate were collected at 2, 6 and 24 h (h). The five major metabolites of sulforaphane were measured in tissues by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.
Sulforaphane metabolites were detected in all tissues at 2 and 6 h post gavage, with the highest concentrations in the small intestine, prostate, kidney and lung. A dose-dependent increase in sulforaphane concentrations was observed in all tissues except prostate. At 5 μmole, Nrf2(-/-) genotype had no effect on sulforaphane metabolism. Only Nrf2(-/-) females given 20 μmoles sulforaphane for 6 h exhibited a marked increase in tissue sulforaphane metabolite concentrations. The relative abundance of each metabolite was not strikingly different between genders and genotypes.
Sulforaphane is metabolized and reaches target tissues in wild-type and Nrf2(-/-) mice. These data provide further evidence that sulforaphane is bioavailable and may be an effective dietary chemoprevention agent for several tissue sites.
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ABSTRACT: Consumers of higher levels of Brassica vegetables, particularly those of the genus Brassica (broccoli, Brussels sprouts and cabbage), reduce their susceptibility to cancer at a variety of organ sites. Brassica vegetables contain high concentrations of glucosinolates that can be hydrolyzed by the plant enzyme, myrosinase, or intestinal microflora to isothiocyanates, potent inducers of cytoprotective enzymes and inhibitors of carcinogenesis. Oral administration of either the isothiocyanate, sulforaphane, or its glucosinolate precursor, glucoraphanin, inhibits mammary carcinogenesis in rats treated with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene. In this study, we sought to determine whether sulforaphane exerts a direct chemopreventive action on animal and human mammary tissue. The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of a single 150 mumol oral dose of sulforaphane were evaluated in the rat mammary gland. We detected sulforaphane metabolites at concentrations known to alter gene expression in cell culture. Elevated cytoprotective NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) gene transcripts were measured using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. An observed 3-fold increase in NQO1 enzymatic activity, as well as 4-fold elevated immunostaining of HO-1 in rat mammary epithelium, provides strong evidence of a pronounced pharmacodynamic action of sulforaphane. In a subsequent pilot study, eight healthy women undergoing reduction mammoplasty were given a single dose of a broccoli sprout preparation containing 200 mumol of sulforaphane. Following oral dosing, sulforaphane metabolites were readily measurable in human breast tissue enriched for epithelial cells. These findings provide a strong rationale for evaluating the protective effects of a broccoli sprout preparation in clinical trials of women at risk for breast cancer.Carcinogenesis 08/2007; 28(7):1485-90. · 5.70 Impact Factor