Drainage efficiency with dual versus single catheters in severe intraventricular hemorrhage.
ABSTRACT Little is known about the efficacy of single versus dual extraventricular drain (EVD) use in intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), with and without thrombolytic therapy.
Post-hoc analysis of seven patients with dual bilateral EVDs from two multicenter trials involving 100 patients with IVH, and spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) volume <30 ml requiring emergency external ventricular drainage. Seven "control" patients with single catheters were matched by IVH volume and distribution and treatment assignment. Head CT scans were obtained daily during intraventricular injections for quantitative determination of IVH volume.
Median [min-max] age of the 14 subjects was 56 [40-73] years. Median duration of EVD was 7.9 days (single catheter group) versus 12.2 days (dual catheter group) (P = 0.34). Baseline median IVH volume was not significantly different between groups (75.4 ml [22.4-105.1]--single EVD vs. 84.5 ml [42.0-132.0]--dual EVD; P = 0.28). Comparing the change in IVH volume on time-matched CT scans during dual EVD use, the median decrease in IVH volume in dual catheter patients was significantly larger (52.1 [31.7-81.1] ml) versus single catheter patients (34.5 [13.1-73.9] ml) (P = 0.004). There was a trend to greater decrease in IVH volume during dual EVD use in both rt-PA (P = 0.9) and placebo-treated (P = 0.11) subgroups.
The decision to place dual EVDs is generally reserved for large IVH (>40 ml) with casting and mass effect. The use of dual simultaneous catheters may increase clot resolution with or without adjunctive thrombolytic therapy.
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ABSTRACT: Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) accounts for 10-15 % of all strokes, however it causes 30-50 % of stroke related mortality, disability and cost. The prevalence increases with age with only two cases/100,000/year for age less than 40 years to almost 350 cases/100,000/year for age more than 80 years. Several trials of open surgical evacuation of ICH have failed to show clear benefit over medical management. However, some small trials of minimal invasive hematoma evacuation in combination with thrombolytics have shown encouraging results. Based on these findings larger clinical trials are being undertaken to optimize and define therapeutic benefit of minimally invasive surgery in combination with thrombolytic clearance of hematoma. In this article we will review some of the background of minimally invasive surgery and the use of thrombolytics in the setting of ICH and intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and will highlight the early findings of MISTIE and CLEAR trials for these two entities respectively.Current Cardiology Reports 09/2012;
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ABSTRACT: PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Bloody cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Different treatment strategies aiming at faster clearance of bloody CSF have emerged. The present review focuses on recent developments in the investigation of those treatments. RECENT FINDINGS: Intraventricular fibrinolysis (IVF) for accelerated IVH-resolution has been clinically tested since the early 1990s. The lately summarized evidence from smaller studies indicates that IVF may result in a benefit in mortality and outcome. Recent investigations have elucidated different aspects of IVF, mainly related to safety. Neuroendoscopy has also emerged as a minimally invasive technique allowing fast removal of IVH. The capability of lumbar drainage to reduce vasospasm after SAH has been tested in a large trial. SUMMARY: IVF is relatively well tolerated and accelerates clot clearance after IVH. The effect of IVF on clinical outcome and mortality is currently being investigated in a large-scale phase III clinical trial. Neuroendoscopy is feasible for the treatment of IVH, however, larger trials are lacking. Lumbar drainage reduces the incidence of vasospasm after SAH. An ongoing phase III trial has been designed to test its influence on outcome. Lumbar drainage may also reduce shunt-dependency after IVH.Current opinion in critical care 01/2013; · 2.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: : Optimal management of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) remains one of the highly debated areas in the field of neurosurgery. Earlier studies comparing open surgical intervention with best medical management failed to show a clear benefit. More recent experience with minimally invasive techniques has shown greater promise. Well-designed phase II trials have confirmed the safety and preliminary treatment effect of thrombolytic aspiration and clearance of spontaneous ICH and associated intraventricular obstructive hemorrhage. Those trials are reviewed, including respective protocols and technical nuances, and lessons learned regarding patient selection, the concept of hemorrhage stabilization, optimization of the surgical procedure, and thrombolytic dosing decisions. These concepts have been incorporated in the design of ongoing definite phase III randomized trials (MISTIE and CLEAR) funded by the National Institutes of Health. These are presented including the role of surgical leadership in the training and monitoring of the surgical task and quality assurance. The impact of these techniques on neurosurgical practice is discussed. AVM, arteriovenous malformationEVD, external ventricular drainICH, intracerebral hemorrhageIVH, intraventricular hemorrhagemRS, modified Rankin ScoreNIH, National Institutes of HealthrtPA, recombinant tissue plasminogen activator.Neurosurgery 02/2014; 74 Suppl 1:S142-S150. · 2.53 Impact Factor