Article

The Quiet Revolution: Breastfeeding Transformed With the Use of Breast Pumps

Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.
American Journal of Public Health (Impact Factor: 4.23). 06/2011; 101(8):1356-9. DOI: 10.2105/AJPH.2011.300136
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT A quiet revolution has been taking place in the feeding of US infants in the form of women using electric breast pumps. This revolution in milk expression may be a boon for both mothers and infants if more infants are fed human milk or if they receive human milk for a longer period. Milk expression may also be problematic for mothers, and it may be particularly problematic for infants if they are fed too much, fed milk of an inappropriate composition, or fed milk that is contaminated. As a result, the time has come to determine the prevalence of exclusive and periodic breast milk expression and the consequences of these behaviors for the health of mothers and their infants.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Kathleen M Rasmussen, Jul 06, 2015
1 Follower
 · 
112 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This paper applies the real options approach to sort out the carbon management strategies for an urban logistics corporation to reduce the carbon emission, and measures the potential gain or loss under the green logistics cost concept. Hence, the paper divides different corporation-level investing circumstances into three stages (i.e., no other change stage, carbon offset stage, and internal system upgrade stage), and the proposed model tries to point out the threshold of the stage switching, which can be evaluated by the optimal timing under the uncertain carbon price. It also can obtain the potential benefit from strategy execution which is measured by the determination of the optimal timing and expect the carbon price under the uncertain cost of urban logistics.
    01/2010; DOI:10.1109/IEEM.2010.5674422
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A central goal of The Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine is the development of clinical protocols for managing common medical problems that may impact breastfeeding success. These protocols serve only as guidelines for the care of breastfeeding mothers and infants and do not delineate an exclusive course of treatment or serve as standards of medical care. Variations in treatment may be appropriate according to the needs of an individual patient.
    Breastfeeding Medicine 06/2010; 5(3):127-30. DOI:10.1089/bfm.2010.9988 · 1.73 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The past characterisations of breastfeeding as being only at the breast of the mother may no longer be applicable in the United States as mothers now frequently express their milk. We conducted a retrospective cohort study with women who visited the Cincinnati Children's Breastfeeding Medicine Clinic to understand breast milk feeding behaviours of healthy mothers and infants, which included questions specifically about breast milk expression. All 40 mothers in the cohort expressed their milk and all 40 infants were fed expressed milk. One infant was fed another mother's milk for 30 days. Two-thirds (13/40) of infants received their mother's expressed milk at least a week after it was first expressed and 25% (10/40) of infants continued to be fed expressed breast milk after mothers had stopped expressing milk. There were 14 sequences of breast milk production by the mothers and 16 sequences of consumption by the infants. Early in the post-partum period, mothers started expressing milk even though their infants were consuming all of the breast milk that they needed at the breast. As a result of breast milk expression by all mothers in this cohort, we observed highly variable patterns of maternal breast milk production and infant breast milk consumption, which were not necessarily synchronous within a dyad. It is now time to develop appropriate ways to characterise the production and consumption of breast milk more accurately and investigate whether these behaviours have consequences for the health of mothers and infants.
    Maternal and Child Nutrition 05/2012; DOI:10.1111/j.1740-8709.2012.00416.x · 2.97 Impact Factor