Induction of G-quadruplex DNA structure by Zn(II) 5,10,15,20-tetrakis (N-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphyrin

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Swarthmore College, 500 College Ave., Swarthmore, PA 19081, USA.
Biochimie (Impact Factor: 2.96). 06/2011; 93(8):1297-309. DOI: 10.1016/j.biochi.2011.05.038
Source: PubMed


G-quadruplexes (GQ) are formed by the association of guanine-rich stretches of DNA. Certain small molecules can influence kinetics and thermodynamics of this association. Understanding the mechanism of ligand-assisted GQ folding is necessary for the design of more efficient cancer therapeutics. The oligonucleotide d(TAGGG)(2) forms parallel bimolecular GQ in the presence of ≥66 mM K(+); GQs are not formed under Na(+), Li(+) or low K(+) conditions. The thermodynamic parameters for GQ folding at 60 μM oligonucleotide and 100 mM KCl are ΔH = -35 ± 2 kcal mol(-1) and ΔG(310) = -1.4 kcal mol(-1). Quadruplex [d(TAGGG)(2)](2) binds 2-3 K(+) ions with K(d) of 0.5 ± 0.2 mM. Our work addresses the question of whether metal free 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphyrin (TMPyP4) and its Zn(II), Cu(II), and Pt(II) derivatives are capable of facilitating GQ folding of d(TAGGG)(2) from single stranded, or binding to preformed GQ, using UV-vis and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopies. ZnTMPyP4 is unique among other porphyrins in its ability to induce GQ structure of d(TAGGG)(2), which also requires at least a low amount of potassium. ZnTMPyP4 binds with 2:1 stoichiometry possibly in an end-stacking mode with a ~10(6) M(-1) binding constant, determined through UV-vis and ITC titrations. This process is entropically driven and has ΔG(298) of -8.0 kcal mol(-1). TMPyP4 binds with 3:1 stoichiometry and K(a) of ~10(6) M(-1). ZnTMPyP4 and TMPyP4 are efficient stabilizers of [d(TAGGG)(2)](2) displaying ΔT(1/2) of 13.5 and 13.8 °C, respectively, at 1:2 GQ to porphyrin ratio; CuTMPyP4 shows a much weaker effect (ΔT(1/2) = 4.7 °C) and PtTMPyP4 is weakly destabilizing (ΔT(1/2) = -2.9 °C). The selectivity of ZnTMPyP4 for GQ versus dsDNA is comparable to that of TMPyP4. The ability of ZnTMPyP4 to bind and stabilize GQ, to induce GQ formation, and speed up its folding may suggest an important biological activity for this molecule.

20 Reads
  • Source
    • "UV–vis titration was used to investigate the Fe(III) complex's selectivity toward G-quadruplex vs. duplex DNA (dsDNA). Since the canonical dsDNA structure in cells has a high excess over other DNA structures (Bhattacharjee et al., 2011), fish sperm DNA was used as main competitor. As shown in Figure S1 (in the supporting information), the binding constant for dsDNA was found to be 4.11 × 10 4 M −1 . "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: 2015) Spectroscopic, biological, and molecular modeling studies on the interactions of [Fe(III)-meloxicam] with G-quadruplex DNA and investigation of its release from bovine serum albumin (BSA) The guanine-rich sequence, specifically in DNA, telomeric DNA, is a potential target of anticancer drugs. In this work, a mononuclear Fe(III) complex containing two meloxicam ligands was synthesized as a G-quadruplex stabilizer. The interaction between the Fe(III) complex and G-quadruplex with sequence of 5′-G 3 (T 2 AG 3) 3-3′ (HTG21) was investigated using spectroscopic methods, molecular modeling, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. The spectroscopic methods of UV–vis, fluorescence, and circular dichroism showed that the metal complex can effectively induce and stabilize G-quadruplex structure in the G-rich 21-mer sequence. Also, the binding constant between the Fe(III) complex and G-quadruplex was measured by these methods and it was found to be 4.53(±0.30) × 10 5 M −1). The PCR stop assay indicated that the Fe(III) complex inhibits DNA amplification. The cell viability assay showed that the complex has significant antitumor activities against Hela cells. According to the UV–vis results, the interaction of the Fe(III) complex with duplex DNA is an order of magnitude lower than G-quadruplex. Furthermore, the release of the complex incorporated in bovine serum albumin nanoparticles was also investigated in physiological conditions. The release of the complex followed a bi-phasic release pattern with high and low releasing rates at the first and second phases, respectively. Also, in order to obtain the binding mode of the Fe(III) complex with G-quadruplex, molecular modeling was performed. The molecular docking results showed that the Fe(III) complex was docked to the end-stacked of the G-quadruplex with a π–π interaction, created between the meloxicam ligand and the guanine bases of the G-quadruplex.
    Journal of biomolecular Structure & Dynamics 11/2015; 33(11):2316-2329. · 2.92 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "The cooling curve was not superimposable with the heating curve. Ligand D3 binds and stabilizes G4DNA driving the ssDNA ↔ G4DNA equilibrium toward G4DNA and therefore this might have accelerated the folding process [49]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The study of anticancer agents that act via stabilization of telomeric G-quadruplex DNA (G4DNA) is important because such agents often inhibit telomerase activity. Several types of G4DNA binding ligands are known. In these studies, the target structures often involve a single G4 DNA unit formed by short DNA telomeric sequences. However, the 3'-terminal single-stranded human telomeric DNA can form higher-order structures by clustering consecutive quadruplex units (dimers or n-mers). Herein, we present new synthetic gemini (twin) bisbenzimidazole ligands, in which the oligo-oxyethylene spacers join the two bisbenzimidazole units for the recognition of both monomeric and dimeric G4DNA, derived from d(T2AG3)4 and d(T2AG3)8 human telomeric DNA, respectively. The spacer between the two bisbenzimidazoles in the geminis plays a critical role in the G4DNA stability. We report here (i) synthesis of new effective gemini anticancer agents that are selectively more toxic towards the cancer cells than the corresponding normal cells; (ii) formation and characterization of G4DNA dimers in solution as well as computational construction of the dimeric G4DNA structures. The gemini ligands direct the folding of the single-stranded DNA into an unusually stable parallel-stranded G4DNA when it was formed in presence of the ligands in KCl solution and the gemini ligands show spacer length dependent potent telomerase inhibition properties.
    PLoS ONE 06/2012; 7(6):e39467. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0039467 · 3.23 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "In order to obtain ‘equilibrium’ data UV-vis titrations were repeated in a batch method where NMM samples containing increasing amounts of Tel22 were incubated for 30 hours at 30°C. Accurate stoichiometry of NMM/Tel22 complex was determined using continuous variation analysis, also known as a Job plot (55), following closely the protocol published earlier (35). Concentrations of NMM and Tel22 were matched at 18 µM within 5%. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The remarkable selectivity of N-methyl mesoporphyrin IX (NMM) for G-quadruplexes (GQs) is long known, however its ability to stabilize and bind GQs has not been investigated in detail. Through the use of circular dichroism, UV-visible spectroscopy and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) melting assay we have shown that NMM stabilizes human telomeric DNA dAG(3)(TTAG(3))(3) (Tel22) and is selective for its parallel conformation to which it binds in 1:1 stoichiometry with a binding constant of ≈ 1.0 × 10(5)M(-1). NMM does not interact with an antiparallel conformation of Tel22 in sodium buffer and is the second example in the literature, after TOxaPy, of a ligand with an excellent selectivity for a specific GQ structure. NMM's stabilizing ability toward predominantly parallel GQ conformation is universal: it stabilizes a variety of biologically relevant G-rich sequences including telomeres and oncogene promoters. The N-methyl group is integral for selectivity and stabilization, as the unmethylated analogue, mesoporphyrin IX, does not stabilize GQ DNA in FRET melting assays. Finally, NMM induces the isomerization of Tel22 into a structure with increased parallel component in K(+) but not in Na(+) buffer. The ability of NMM to cause structural rearrangement and efficient stabilization of Tel22 may bear biological significance.
    Nucleic Acids Research 02/2012; 40(12):5432-47. DOI:10.1093/nar/gks152 · 9.11 Impact Factor
Show more