Induction of G-quadruplex DNA structure by Zn(II) 5,10,15,20-tetrakis (N-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphyrin
ABSTRACT G-quadruplexes (GQ) are formed by the association of guanine-rich stretches of DNA. Certain small molecules can influence kinetics and thermodynamics of this association. Understanding the mechanism of ligand-assisted GQ folding is necessary for the design of more efficient cancer therapeutics. The oligonucleotide d(TAGGG)(2) forms parallel bimolecular GQ in the presence of ≥66 mM K(+); GQs are not formed under Na(+), Li(+) or low K(+) conditions. The thermodynamic parameters for GQ folding at 60 μM oligonucleotide and 100 mM KCl are ΔH = -35 ± 2 kcal mol(-1) and ΔG(310) = -1.4 kcal mol(-1). Quadruplex [d(TAGGG)(2)](2) binds 2-3 K(+) ions with K(d) of 0.5 ± 0.2 mM. Our work addresses the question of whether metal free 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphyrin (TMPyP4) and its Zn(II), Cu(II), and Pt(II) derivatives are capable of facilitating GQ folding of d(TAGGG)(2) from single stranded, or binding to preformed GQ, using UV-vis and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopies. ZnTMPyP4 is unique among other porphyrins in its ability to induce GQ structure of d(TAGGG)(2), which also requires at least a low amount of potassium. ZnTMPyP4 binds with 2:1 stoichiometry possibly in an end-stacking mode with a ~10(6) M(-1) binding constant, determined through UV-vis and ITC titrations. This process is entropically driven and has ΔG(298) of -8.0 kcal mol(-1). TMPyP4 binds with 3:1 stoichiometry and K(a) of ~10(6) M(-1). ZnTMPyP4 and TMPyP4 are efficient stabilizers of [d(TAGGG)(2)](2) displaying ΔT(1/2) of 13.5 and 13.8 °C, respectively, at 1:2 GQ to porphyrin ratio; CuTMPyP4 shows a much weaker effect (ΔT(1/2) = 4.7 °C) and PtTMPyP4 is weakly destabilizing (ΔT(1/2) = -2.9 °C). The selectivity of ZnTMPyP4 for GQ versus dsDNA is comparable to that of TMPyP4. The ability of ZnTMPyP4 to bind and stabilize GQ, to induce GQ formation, and speed up its folding may suggest an important biological activity for this molecule.
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ABSTRACT: The remarkable selectivity of N-methyl mesoporphyrin IX (NMM) for G-quadruplexes (GQs) is long known, however its ability to stabilize and bind GQs has not been investigated in detail. Through the use of circular dichroism, UV-visible spectroscopy and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) melting assay we have shown that NMM stabilizes human telomeric DNA dAG(3)(TTAG(3))(3) (Tel22) and is selective for its parallel conformation to which it binds in 1:1 stoichiometry with a binding constant of ≈ 1.0 × 10(5)M(-1). NMM does not interact with an antiparallel conformation of Tel22 in sodium buffer and is the second example in the literature, after TOxaPy, of a ligand with an excellent selectivity for a specific GQ structure. NMM's stabilizing ability toward predominantly parallel GQ conformation is universal: it stabilizes a variety of biologically relevant G-rich sequences including telomeres and oncogene promoters. The N-methyl group is integral for selectivity and stabilization, as the unmethylated analogue, mesoporphyrin IX, does not stabilize GQ DNA in FRET melting assays. Finally, NMM induces the isomerization of Tel22 into a structure with increased parallel component in K(+) but not in Na(+) buffer. The ability of NMM to cause structural rearrangement and efficient stabilization of Tel22 may bear biological significance.Nucleic Acids Research 02/2012; 40(12):5432-47. DOI:10.1093/nar/gks152 · 9.11 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The study of anticancer agents that act via stabilization of telomeric G-quadruplex DNA (G4DNA) is important because such agents often inhibit telomerase activity. Several types of G4DNA binding ligands are known. In these studies, the target structures often involve a single G4 DNA unit formed by short DNA telomeric sequences. However, the 3'-terminal single-stranded human telomeric DNA can form higher-order structures by clustering consecutive quadruplex units (dimers or n-mers). Herein, we present new synthetic gemini (twin) bisbenzimidazole ligands, in which the oligo-oxyethylene spacers join the two bisbenzimidazole units for the recognition of both monomeric and dimeric G4DNA, derived from d(T2AG3)4 and d(T2AG3)8 human telomeric DNA, respectively. The spacer between the two bisbenzimidazoles in the geminis plays a critical role in the G4DNA stability. We report here (i) synthesis of new effective gemini anticancer agents that are selectively more toxic towards the cancer cells than the corresponding normal cells; (ii) formation and characterization of G4DNA dimers in solution as well as computational construction of the dimeric G4DNA structures. The gemini ligands direct the folding of the single-stranded DNA into an unusually stable parallel-stranded G4DNA when it was formed in presence of the ligands in KCl solution and the gemini ligands show spacer length dependent potent telomerase inhibition properties.PLoS ONE 06/2012; 7(6):e39467. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0039467 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Ligand-induced stabilization of the G-quadruplex DNA structure derived from the single-stranded 3'-overhang of the telomeric DNA is an attractive strategy for the inhibition of the telomerase activity. The agents that can induce/stabilize a DNA sequence into a G-quadruplex structure are therefore potential anticancer drugs. Herein we present the first report of the interactions of two novel bisbenzimidazoles (TBBz1 and TBBz2) based on Tröger's base skeleton with the G-quadruplex DNA (G4DNA). These Tröger's base molecules stabilize the G4DNA derived from a human telomeric sequence. Evidence of their strong interaction with the G4DNA has been obtained from CD spectroscopy, thermal denaturation, and UV-vis titration studies. These ligands also possess significantly higher affinity toward the G4DNA over the duplex DNA. The above results obtained are in excellent agreement with the biological activity, measured in vitro using a modified TRAP assay. Furthermore, the ligands are selectively more cytotoxic toward the cancerous cells than the corresponding noncancerous cells. Computational studies suggested that the adaptive scaffold might allow these ligands to occupy not only the G-quartet planes but also the grooves of the G4DNA.Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 07/2012; 55(17):7460-71. DOI:10.1021/jm300442r · 5.48 Impact Factor