Induction of G-quadruplex DNA structure by Zn(II) 5,10,15,20-tetrakis (N-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphyrin
ABSTRACT G-quadruplexes (GQ) are formed by the association of guanine-rich stretches of DNA. Certain small molecules can influence kinetics and thermodynamics of this association. Understanding the mechanism of ligand-assisted GQ folding is necessary for the design of more efficient cancer therapeutics. The oligonucleotide d(TAGGG)(2) forms parallel bimolecular GQ in the presence of ≥66 mM K(+); GQs are not formed under Na(+), Li(+) or low K(+) conditions. The thermodynamic parameters for GQ folding at 60 μM oligonucleotide and 100 mM KCl are ΔH = -35 ± 2 kcal mol(-1) and ΔG(310) = -1.4 kcal mol(-1). Quadruplex [d(TAGGG)(2)](2) binds 2-3 K(+) ions with K(d) of 0.5 ± 0.2 mM. Our work addresses the question of whether metal free 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphyrin (TMPyP4) and its Zn(II), Cu(II), and Pt(II) derivatives are capable of facilitating GQ folding of d(TAGGG)(2) from single stranded, or binding to preformed GQ, using UV-vis and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopies. ZnTMPyP4 is unique among other porphyrins in its ability to induce GQ structure of d(TAGGG)(2), which also requires at least a low amount of potassium. ZnTMPyP4 binds with 2:1 stoichiometry possibly in an end-stacking mode with a ~10(6) M(-1) binding constant, determined through UV-vis and ITC titrations. This process is entropically driven and has ΔG(298) of -8.0 kcal mol(-1). TMPyP4 binds with 3:1 stoichiometry and K(a) of ~10(6) M(-1). ZnTMPyP4 and TMPyP4 are efficient stabilizers of [d(TAGGG)(2)](2) displaying ΔT(1/2) of 13.5 and 13.8 °C, respectively, at 1:2 GQ to porphyrin ratio; CuTMPyP4 shows a much weaker effect (ΔT(1/2) = 4.7 °C) and PtTMPyP4 is weakly destabilizing (ΔT(1/2) = -2.9 °C). The selectivity of ZnTMPyP4 for GQ versus dsDNA is comparable to that of TMPyP4. The ability of ZnTMPyP4 to bind and stabilize GQ, to induce GQ formation, and speed up its folding may suggest an important biological activity for this molecule.
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ABSTRACT: The remarkable selectivity of N-methyl mesoporphyrin IX (NMM) for G-quadruplexes (GQs) is long known, however its ability to stabilize and bind GQs has not been investigated in detail. Through the use of circular dichroism, UV-visible spectroscopy and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) melting assay we have shown that NMM stabilizes human telomeric DNA dAG(3)(TTAG(3))(3) (Tel22) and is selective for its parallel conformation to which it binds in 1:1 stoichiometry with a binding constant of ≈ 1.0 × 10(5)M(-1). NMM does not interact with an antiparallel conformation of Tel22 in sodium buffer and is the second example in the literature, after TOxaPy, of a ligand with an excellent selectivity for a specific GQ structure. NMM's stabilizing ability toward predominantly parallel GQ conformation is universal: it stabilizes a variety of biologically relevant G-rich sequences including telomeres and oncogene promoters. The N-methyl group is integral for selectivity and stabilization, as the unmethylated analogue, mesoporphyrin IX, does not stabilize GQ DNA in FRET melting assays. Finally, NMM induces the isomerization of Tel22 into a structure with increased parallel component in K(+) but not in Na(+) buffer. The ability of NMM to cause structural rearrangement and efficient stabilization of Tel22 may bear biological significance.Nucleic Acids Research 02/2012; 40(12):5432-47. DOI:10.1093/nar/gks152 · 9.11 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The study of anticancer agents that act via stabilization of telomeric G-quadruplex DNA (G4DNA) is important because such agents often inhibit telomerase activity. Several types of G4DNA binding ligands are known. In these studies, the target structures often involve a single G4 DNA unit formed by short DNA telomeric sequences. However, the 3'-terminal single-stranded human telomeric DNA can form higher-order structures by clustering consecutive quadruplex units (dimers or n-mers). Herein, we present new synthetic gemini (twin) bisbenzimidazole ligands, in which the oligo-oxyethylene spacers join the two bisbenzimidazole units for the recognition of both monomeric and dimeric G4DNA, derived from d(T2AG3)4 and d(T2AG3)8 human telomeric DNA, respectively. The spacer between the two bisbenzimidazoles in the geminis plays a critical role in the G4DNA stability. We report here (i) synthesis of new effective gemini anticancer agents that are selectively more toxic towards the cancer cells than the corresponding normal cells; (ii) formation and characterization of G4DNA dimers in solution as well as computational construction of the dimeric G4DNA structures. The gemini ligands direct the folding of the single-stranded DNA into an unusually stable parallel-stranded G4DNA when it was formed in presence of the ligands in KCl solution and the gemini ligands show spacer length dependent potent telomerase inhibition properties.PLoS ONE 06/2012; 7(6):e39467. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0039467 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The photophysical properties of 2.3 nm thioglycolic acid (TGA) coated CdTe quantum dots (QDs) prepared by a reflux method have been studied in the presence of cationic meso-tetrakis(4-N-methylpyridyl) zinc porphyrin (ZnTMPyP4). Addition of the CdTe QDs to the porphyrin in H2O results in a marked red-shift and hypochromism in the porphyrin absorption spectrum, indicative of a non-covalent binding interaction with the QD surface. Only low equivalents of the quantum dot were required for complete quenching of the porphyrin fluorescence revealing that one quantum dot may quench more than one porphyrin. Similarly addition of porphyrin to the quantum dot provided evidence for very efficient quenching of the CdTe photoluminescence, suggesting the formation of CdTe–porphyrin aggregates. Definitive evidence for such aggregates was gathered using small angle X-ray spectroscopy (SAXS). Ultrafast transient absorption data are consistent with very rapid photoinduced electron transfer (1.3 ps) and the resultant formation of a long-lived porphyrin species.Dalton Transactions 10/2012; 41(42):13159-13166. DOI:10.1039/C2DT30741C · 4.10 Impact Factor