Induction of G-quadruplex DNA structure by Zn(II) 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphyrin.
ABSTRACT G-quadruplexes (GQ) are formed by the association of guanine-rich stretches of DNA. Certain small molecules can influence kinetics and thermodynamics of this association. Understanding the mechanism of ligand-assisted GQ folding is necessary for the design of more efficient cancer therapeutics. The oligonucleotide d(TAGGG)(2) forms parallel bimolecular GQ in the presence of ≥66 mM K(+); GQs are not formed under Na(+), Li(+) or low K(+) conditions. The thermodynamic parameters for GQ folding at 60 μM oligonucleotide and 100 mM KCl are ΔH = -35 ± 2 kcal mol(-1) and ΔG(310) = -1.4 kcal mol(-1). Quadruplex [d(TAGGG)(2)](2) binds 2-3 K(+) ions with K(d) of 0.5 ± 0.2 mM. Our work addresses the question of whether metal free 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphyrin (TMPyP4) and its Zn(II), Cu(II), and Pt(II) derivatives are capable of facilitating GQ folding of d(TAGGG)(2) from single stranded, or binding to preformed GQ, using UV-vis and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopies. ZnTMPyP4 is unique among other porphyrins in its ability to induce GQ structure of d(TAGGG)(2), which also requires at least a low amount of potassium. ZnTMPyP4 binds with 2:1 stoichiometry possibly in an end-stacking mode with a ~10(6) M(-1) binding constant, determined through UV-vis and ITC titrations. This process is entropically driven and has ΔG(298) of -8.0 kcal mol(-1). TMPyP4 binds with 3:1 stoichiometry and K(a) of ~10(6) M(-1). ZnTMPyP4 and TMPyP4 are efficient stabilizers of [d(TAGGG)(2)](2) displaying ΔT(1/2) of 13.5 and 13.8 °C, respectively, at 1:2 GQ to porphyrin ratio; CuTMPyP4 shows a much weaker effect (ΔT(1/2) = 4.7 °C) and PtTMPyP4 is weakly destabilizing (ΔT(1/2) = -2.9 °C). The selectivity of ZnTMPyP4 for GQ versus dsDNA is comparable to that of TMPyP4. The ability of ZnTMPyP4 to bind and stabilize GQ, to induce GQ formation, and speed up its folding may suggest an important biological activity for this molecule.
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ABSTRACT: The effects of the central metal ion on complex formation between meso-tetrakis(N-methylpyridium-4-yl)porphyrin (TMPyP) and the thrombin-binding aptamer G-quadruplex, 5'G2T2G2TGTG2T2G2, were examined in this study. The central metal ions were vanadium and zinc. At a [porphyrin]/[G-quadruplex] ratio of less than one, the absorption and CD spectra were unaffected by the mixing ratio for all three porphyrins, suggesting that the binding mode is homogeneous. Relatively small changes in the absorption spectrum when forming the complexes with the G-quadruplex, the positive CD signal, and the large accessibility of the I(-) quencher, suggested that all these porphyrins are not intercalated between the G-quartet. Stabilization of the G-quadruplex by ZnTMPyP was most effective. The effect of VOTMPyP on G-quadruplex stabilization was moderate, whereas TMPyP slightly destabilized G-quadruplex. From this observation, the involvement of the ligation of one G-quartet component to the central metal ion in G-quadruplex stabilization by metallo-TMPyP is suggested.Biophysical chemistry 04/2014; 190-191C:17-24. · 2.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: : Background Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions cause disease and accumulate during aging, yet our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying their formation remains rudimentary. Guanine-quadruplex (GQ) DNA structures are associated with nuclear DNA instability in cancer; recent evidence indicates they can also form in mitochondrial nucleic acids, suggesting that these non-B DNA structures could be associated with mtDNA deletions. Currently, the multiple types of GQ sequences and their association with human mtDNA stability are unknown. Results Here, we show an association between human mtDNA deletion breakpoint locations (sites where DNA ends rejoin after deletion of a section) and sequences with G-quadruplex forming potential (QFP), and establish the ability of selected sequences to form GQ in vitro. QFP contain four runs of either two or three consecutive guanines (2G and 3G, respectively), and we identified four types of QFP for subsequent analysis: intrastrand 2G, intrastrand 3G, duplex derived interstrand (ddi) 2G, and ddi 3G QFP sequences. We analyzed the position of each motif set relative to either 5[prime] or 3[prime] unique mtDNA deletion breakpoints, and found that intrastrand QFP sequences, but not ddi QFP sequences, showed significant association with mtDNA deletion breakpoint locations. Moreover, a large proportion of these QFP sequences occur at smaller distances to breakpoints relative to distribution-matched controls. The positive association of 2G QFP sequences persisted when breakpoints were divided into clinical subgroups. We tested in vitro GQ formation of representative mtDNA sequences containing these 2G QFP sequences and detected robust GQ structures by UV-VIS and CD spectroscopy. Notably, the most frequent deletion breakpoints, including those of the "common deletion," are bounded by 2G QFP sequence motifs. Conclusions The potential for GQ to influence mitochondrial genome stability supports a high-priority investigation of these structures and their regulation in normal and pathological mitochondrial biology. These findings emphasize the potential importance of helicases that subsequently resolve GQ to maintain the stability of the mitochondrial genome.BMC Genomics 08/2014; 15(1):677. · 4.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The present study characterizes the effects of the boric acid binding on calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA) by spectroscopic and calorimetric methods. UV-Vis absorbance spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy were employed to characterize binding properties. Changes in the secondary structure of ct-DNA were determined by CD spectroscopy. Sizes and morphologies of boric acid-DNA complexes were determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The kinetics of boric acid binding to calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA) was investigated by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). ITC results revealed that boric acid exhibits a moderate affinity to ct-DNA with a binding constant (K a) of 9.54 × 10(4) M(-1). FT-IR results revealed that boric acid binds to the deoxyribose sugar of DNA without disrupting the B-conformation at tested concentrations.Biological trace element research 03/2014; 158(2). · 1.92 Impact Factor