Three-dimensional volumetric measurements and analysis of the maxillary sinus.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan, USA.
American Journal of Rhinology and Allergy 05/2011; 25(3):152-6. DOI: 10.2500/ajra.2011.25.3605
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Multiple chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) staging systems have been developed in an attempt to correlate symptoms with radiological imaging results. Currently, no perfect system exists. We sought to analyze the maxillary sinus (MS) using three-dimensional volumetric measurements and advanced high-resolution CT imaging.
We reviewed MS CT scans from 50 control subjects and 50 subjects with documented CRS involving at least one MS. The following measurements were recorded: (1) volume of MS free air, (2) MS mucosal thickening, and (3) MS lateral wall bony thickness. Average Hounsfield unit (HU) values for mucosal thickening among CRS subjects were also recorded. Values are expressed as mean ± SD and median. Values from the CRS patients were compared with healthy controls using Student's t-tests.
Among controls (n = 50), volumes (mL) of right and left MS were 24.1 ± 9.7 and 24.7 ± 9.0, respectively. Among CRS patients (n = 50), the portion of mucosal disease to total sinus volume was 51.8% (right) and 50.7% (left). Mean bony thickness (mm) in controls was 0.98 ± 0.2 (right) and 1.0 ± 0.3 (left). CRS patients had significantly greater bony thickness 1.9 ± 0.8 (right) and 2.0 ± 0.9 (left; p = 0.0001). HU for diseased MS were 30.1 ± 18.7 (right) and 35.7 ± 22.1 (left).
Three-dimensional volumetric analysis combined with HU calculations and bony thickness measurements represents a new and unique way to evaluate CT scans in patients with CRS. Additional studies correlating symptoms with imaging findings as well as analysis of all paranasal sinuses is the next step toward a novel staging system.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The Lund-Mackay system (L-M system) is widely used for computed tomography (CT) evaluation of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). However, a major drawback of the L-M system is its insufficiency of gradation. To avoid this deficiency, a new staging system proposed by American societies and the Zinreich system were reported as modifications of the L-M system. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficiency of gradation and the accuracy of the visual quantification of these modified staging systems. METHODS: Preoperative CT scanning was performed on 20 adult patients with CRS. A computer workstation was used to measure the volume of each sinus and the volume of inflammatory disease in each sinus. Then the soft tissue density rate (STDR) and objective scores, which were adapted to each system, were calculated. Visual evaluation of the CT images was performed using these systems. The visual score with each staging system and STDR value were evaluated for a correlation, and the rate of agreement was determined between the visual and objective scores obtained with each staging system. RESULTS: The correlation between the visual scores and the STDR values was shown with all staging system including L-M system. The coefficients of correlation between the visual scores and the STDR values with these modified systems were higher than with the L-M system. While the agreement rates with these modified systems were significantly lower than with the L-M system, differences of 2 or greater between the subjective and objective scores were rare. CONCLUSION: We cannot conclude that one of these three staging systems is superior to the other. With this study, the simple grading system such L-M staging score was considered easy and accurate method to use the clinical level. The modified staging systems showed more efficient ability to gradate in evaluating rhinosinusitis inflammation compared with the L-M system and also showed acceptable accuracy.
    Auris, nasus, larynx 06/2013; · 0.58 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We aimed to test the hypothesis that three-dimensional (3D) volume-based scoring of computed tomography (CT) images of the paranasal sinuses was superior to Lund-Mackay CT scoring of disease severity in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). We determined correlation between changes in CT scores (using each scoring system) with changes in other measures of disease severity (symptoms, endoscopic scoring, and quality of life) in patients with CRS treated with triamcinolone. The study group comprised 48 adult subjects with CRS. Baseline symptoms and quality of life were assessed. Endoscopy and CT scans were performed. Patients received a single systemic dose of intramuscular triamcinolone and were reevaluated 1 month later. Strengths of the correlations between changes in CT scores and changes in CRS signs and symptoms and quality of life were determined. We observed some variability in degree of improvement for the different symptom, endoscopic, and quality-of-life parameters after treatment. Improvement of parameters was significantly correlated with improvement in CT disease score using both CT scoring methods. However, volumetric CT scoring had greater correlation with these parameters than Lund-Mackay scoring. Volumetric scoring exhibited higher degree of correlation than Lund-Mackay scoring when comparing improvement in CT score with improvement in score for symptoms, endoscopic exam, and quality of life in this group of patients who received beneficial medical treatment for CRS.
    International Forum of Allergy and Rhinology 09/2013; · 1.00 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Assessment of the lateral wall thickness of the maxillary sinus is very important in decision making for many surgical interventions. The association between the thickness of the lateral wall of the maxillary sinus and the dental status is not well identified. To compare the thickness of the lateral wall of the maxillary sinus in individuals with and without teeth to determine if extraction of the teeth can lead to a significant reduction in the thickness of the maxillary sinus lateral wall or not. In a retrospective study on fifty patients with an edentulous space, the thickness of the lateral wall of the maxillary sinus,one centimeter above the sinus floor in the second premolar (P2), first molar (M1) and second molar (M2) areas was determined by cone beam computed tomography scans(CBCTs) and a digital ruler in Romexis F software (Planmeca Romexis 2.4.2.R) and it was compared with values measured in fifty dentated individuals. Three way analysis of variance was applied for comparison after confirmation of the normal distribution of data. The mean of the wall thickness in each of these points was lower in patients with edentulous spaces; however it was not significant. There was no association between gender and the thickness of the lateral wall of the maxillary sinus, but location was associated with different thicknesses. The differences in the thickness based on the location and dental status necessitates assessment of the wall thickness of the maxillary sinus in addition to the current evaluation of bone thickness between the sinus floor and the edentulous crest before maxillary sinus surgery.
    Iranian Journal of Radiology 01/2014; 11(1):e6675. · 0.04 Impact Factor