Ultrafast selective quantification of methotrexate in human plasma by high-throughput MALDI-isotope dilution mass spectrometry
ABSTRACT A new analytical MS method using isotope dilution combined with MALDI-triple quadrupole MS/MS has been developed and validated for the determination of methotrexate and 7-hydroxymethotrexate in plasma. Methotrexate, methotrexate-d3, 7-hydroxymethotrexate and 7-hydroxymethotrexate-d3 were monitored by selected reaction monitoring using the transitions m/z 455.2→308.2, 458.2→311.2, 471.2→324.2 and 474.2→327.2 for methotrexate, methotrexate-d3, 7-hydroxymethotrexate and 7-hydroxymethotrexate-d3, respectively.
The LLOQ was 1 nmol/l for methotrexate and 7-hydroxymethotrexate while the limit of detection was 0.3 nmol/l for both analytes. The new developed method was cross-validated by a fluorescence polarization immunoassay and tested for its clinical feasibility by measuring plasma samples from patients suffering from acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Plasma methotrexate concentrations ranged between 66.0 and 954 nmol/l and observed 7-hydroxymethotrexate/methotrexate ratios ranged between 0.1 and 32.4, respectively.
The new method showed comparable analytical performances as the fluorescence polarization immunoassay, but analyte specificity and sensitivity of the newly developed method were significantly better.
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ABSTRACT: Dried blood spots (DBS) typically consist in the deposition of small volumes of capillary blood onto dedicated paper cards. Comparatively to whole blood or plasma samples, their benefits rely in the fact that sample collection is easier and that logistic aspects related to sample storage and shipment can be relatively limited, respectively, without the need of a refrigerator or dry ice. Originally, this approach has been developed in the sixties to support the analysis of phenylalanine for the detection of phenylketonuria in newborns using bacterial inhibition test. In the nineties tandem mass spectrometry was established as the detection technique for phenylalanine and tyrosine. DBS became rapidly recognized for their clinical value: they were widely implemented in pediatric settings with mass spectrometric detection, and were closely associated to the debut of newborn screening (NBS) programs, as a part of public health policies. Since then, sample collection on paper cards has been explored with various analytical techniques in other areas more or less successfully regarding large-scale applications. Moreover, in the last 5 years a regain of interest for DBS was observed and originated from the bioanalytical community to support drug development (e.g., PK studies) or therapeutic drug monitoring mainly. Those recent applications were essentially driven by improved sensitivity of triple quadrupole mass spectrometers. This review presents an overall view of all instrumental and methodological developments for DBS analysis with mass spectrometric detection, with and without separation techniques. A general introduction to DBS will describe their advantages and historical aspects of their emergence. A second section will focus on blood collection, with a strong emphasis on specific parameters that can impact quantitative analysis, including chromatographic effects, hematocrit effects, blood effects, and analyte stability. A third part of the review is dedicated to sample preparation and will consider off-line and on-line extractions; in particular, instrumental designs that have been developed so far for DBS extraction will be detailed. Flow injection analysis and applications will be discussed in section IV. The application of surface analysis mass spectrometry (DESI, paper spray, DART, APTDCI, MALDI, LDTD-APCI, and ICP) to DBS is described in section V, while applications based on separation techniques (e.g., liquid or gas chromatography) are presented in section VI. To conclude this review, the current status of DBS analysis is summarized, and future perspectives are provided. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Mass Spec Rev 9999:1–78, 2014Mass Spectrometry Reviews 09/2014; DOI:10.1002/mas.21441 · 8.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Addition of internal standards to dried blood spot (DBS) specimens can be complicated. Therefore, we studied the feasibility of different internal standard addition procedures. Nevirapine and its stable-isotope analogue were used as model compounds and concentrations in DBS specimen were determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry using selected reaction monitoring. The addition procedure of the stable isotope-labeled internal standard had significant impact on observed nevirapine concentrations. Relative recovery rates depending on the internal standard addition procedure ranged between 11.4 and 107.9%. Experiments with different punch sizes (5 and 7 mm diameter) showed no significant influence on observed nevirapine concentrations. Application of internal standard prior to blood spotting provided good nevirapine recoveries and this procedure is well suited for applying DBS in infectious diseases, especially in HIV-infection treatment.Bioanalysis 10/2011; 3(20):2357-64. DOI:10.4155/bio.11.202 · 3.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A new ultrafast quantitative and high-throughput mass spectrometric method using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry has been developed and validated for determination of intracellular erythrocyte concentrations of the antifolate drug methotrexate (MTX) and its polyglutamate metabolites. The method consists of a solid-phase extraction of MTX and MTX-polyglutamate metabolites from deproteinized erythrocyte lysates spiked with aminopterin as internal standard. The newly developed method was validated according to the most recent FDA guidelines on linearity, recovery, within-run and between-run accuracy and precision and stability of the analytes. The low limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 10 nmol/L for all analytes while the limit of detection (LOD) determined at a signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio = 3:1 in drug- free erythrocyte lysate was on average 0.3 nmol/L. After validation, the new method was used in the measurement of intracellular erythrocyte concentrations of MTX and MTX-polyglutamate metabolites (MTXPG2 to MTXPG7) in packed human erythrocyte samples collected from patients with rheumatoid arthritis receiving low-dose oral methotrexate therapy. Mean (SD) intracellular erythrocyte concentrations observed in patient samples were 12.8 (12.6), 12.4 (9.4), 44.4 (30.0), 33.6 (35.9) and 9.4 (8.2) nmol/L for MTX to MTXPG5, respectively, in 10(6) erythrocytes. The highest observed glutamylation degree of MTX was MTXPG5, the very long chain MTX-polyglutamate metabolites MTXPG6 and MTXPG7 were not detected in the packed erythrocyte pellets collected from rheumatoid arthritis patients.Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 10/2011; 25(20):3063-70. DOI:10.1002/rcm.5202 · 2.64 Impact Factor