Worldwide experiences of endoscopic submucosal dissection: Not just Eastern acrobatics

Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu 700-712, South Korea.
World Journal of Gastroenterology (Impact Factor: 2.37). 06/2011; 17(21):2611-7. DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v17.i21.2611
Source: PubMed


The high incidence of gastric cancer has led to the initiation of cancer screening programs. As a result, the number of early gastric cancer cases has increased and consequentially, the cancer mortality rate has decreased. Moreover, the development of minimally invasive endoscopic treatment has been introduced for these early lesions. Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is now recognized as one of the preferred treatment modalities for premalignant gastrointestinal epithelial lesions and early gastric cancer without lymph node metastasis. We review the results of ESD including experiences in Japan and Korea, as well as western countries.

Download full-text


Available from: Kwang Bum Cho,
19 Reads
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Any prognosis of gastrointestinal (GI) cancer is closely related to the stage of the disease at diagnosis. Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) and en bloc endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) have been performed as curative treatments for many early-stage GI lesions in recent years. The technologies have been widely accepted in many Asian countries because they are minimally invasive and supply thorough histopathologic evaluation of the specimens. However, before engaging in endoscopic therapy, an accurate diagnosis is a precondition to effecting the complete cure of the underlying malignancy or carcinoma in situ. For the past few years, many new types of endoscopic techniques, including magnifying endoscopy with narrow-band imaging (ME-NBI), have emerged in many countries because these methods provide a strong indication of early lesions and are very useful in determining treatment options before ESD or EMR. However, to date, there is no comparable classification equivalent to "Kudo's Pit Pattern Classification in the colon", for the upper GI, there is still no clear internationally accepted classification system of magnifying endoscopy. Therefore, in order to help unify some viewpoints, here we will review the defining optical imaging characteristics and the current representative classifications of microvascular and microsurface patterns in the upper GI tract under ME-NBI, describe the accurate relationship between them and the pathological diagnosis, and their clinical applications prior to ESD or en bloc EMR. We will also discuss assessing the differentiation and depth of invasion, defying the lateral spread of involvement and targeting biopsy in real time.
    World Journal of Gastroenterology 03/2012; 18(12):1295-307. DOI:10.3748/wjg.v18.i12.1295 · 2.37 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: Endoscopic resection (ER) was introduced to China from Japan, while most pathologists are influenced by Western criteria. Japanese and Western pathologists have debated for decades how best to distinguish between gastric intraepithelial neoplasia (GIEN) and early gastric cancer (EGC). In this study we aimed to find out how to solve this pathological discrepancy and improve the curative resection of lesions based on our experiences. Methods: In total, 143 patients with GIEN or EGC were treated by ER in our hospital from April 2008 to April 2012. The risk factors related to the degree of malignancy of the lesions and the non-curability of ER were analyzed. Pathological discrepancy between forceps biopsies and ER specimens was also compared. Results: According to the histological types of the ER specimens, there were 67 patients with low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (LGIN), 35 with high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (HGIN) and 41 with EGC. The ER histological type was significantly correlated with gender, ER method, macroscopic type, tumor size, ulcer and histological type of the forceps biopsy (P < 0.05). The discrepancy between forceps biopsy and ER specimens was 41.3% (59/143). Furthermore, the depth of tumor invasion and ER histological type were associated with the curative resection of HGIN and EGC (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The pathological discrepancy shows that patients with HGIN in forceps biopsy should be considered candidates for ER. The risk factors of lesion malignancy and ER curability indicate the great importance of pretreatment evaluation for ER.
    Journal of Digestive Diseases 01/2013; 14(5). DOI:10.1111/1751-2980.12032 · 1.96 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To investigate the indications, resection rate, and safety of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for neoplastic lesions in the gastrointestinal tract at a European referral center. We carried out a retrospective analysis of the ESD procedures performed in our center for mucosal neoplastic and submucosal lesions of the gastrointestinal tract. The duration of the procedure, en bloc and complete (R0) resection rates, and complication rates were evaluated. Variables were reported as mean ± SD or simple proportions. Univariate analysis and comparisons of procedure times and resection rates were performed using Mann-Whitney U tests, or χ(2) tests for dichotomous variables. Between 2007 and 2011, ESD was performed in a total of 103 patients (46.7% male, mean age 64.0 ± 12.7 years). The indications for the procedure were epithelial tumor (n = 54), submucosal tumor (n = 42), or other (n = 7). The total en bloc resection rate was 90.3% (93/103) and R0 resection rate 80.6% (83/103). The median speed of the procedure was 15.0 min/cm(2). The complete resection rate was lower for submucosal tumors arising from the muscle layer (68%, 15/22, P < 0.05). Resection speed was quicker for submucosal tumors localized in the submucosal layer than for lesions arising from the muscularis propria layer (8.1 min/cm(2) vs 17.9 min/cm(2), P < 0.05). The R0 resection rate and speed were better in the last 24 mo (90.1%, 49/54 and 15.3 min/cm(2)) compared to the first 3 years of treatment (73.5%, 36/49, P < 0.05 and 22.0 min/cm(2), P < 0.05). Complications occurred in 14.6% (n = 15) of patients, including perforation in 5.8% (n = 6), pneumoperitoneum in 3.9% (n = 4), delayed bleeding in 1.9% (n = 2), and other in 2.9% (n = 3). Only one patient with delayed perforation required surgical treatment. During the mean follow-up of 26 ± 15.3 mo, among patients with R0 resection, recurrence occurred in one patient (1.2%). ESD is an effective and safe method for resection of neoplastic lesions with low recurrence. Speed and the R0 resection rate increased after 50 procedures.
    World Journal of Gastroenterology 03/2013; 19(12):1953-61. DOI:10.3748/wjg.v19.i12.1953 · 2.37 Impact Factor
Show more