Antecedent acute kidney injury worsens subsequent endotoxin-induced lung inflammation in a two-hit mouse model
ABSTRACT Acute kidney injury (AKI) contributes greatly to morbidity and mortality in critically ill adults and children. Patients with AKI who subsequently develop lung injury are known to suffer worse outcomes compared with patients with lung injury alone. Isolated experimental kidney ischemia alters distal lung water balance and capillary permeability, but the effects of such an aberration on subsequent lung injury are unknown. We present a clinically relevant two-hit murine model wherein a proximal AKI through bilateral renal ischemia (30 min) is followed by a subsequent acute lung injury (ALI) via intratracheal LPS endotoxin (50 μg at 24 h after surgery). Mice demonstrated AKI by elevation of serum creatinine and renal histopathological damage. Mice with ALI and preexisting AKI had increased lung neutrophilia in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and by myeloperoxidase activity over Sham-ALI mice. Additionally, lung histopathological damage was greater in ALI mice with preexisting AKI than Sham-ALI mice. There was uniform elevation of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in kidney, serum, and lung tissue in animals with both AKI and ALI over those with either injury alone. The additive lung inflammation after ALI with antecedent AKI was abrogated in MCP-1-deficient mice. Taken together, our two-hit model demonstrates that kidney injury may prime the lung for a heightened inflammatory response to subsequent injury and MCP-1 may be involved in this model of kidney-lung cross talk. The model holds clinical relevance for patients at risk of lung injury after ischemic injury to the kidney.
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ABSTRACT: There is a growing appreciation for the role that acute kidney injury (AKI) plays in the propagation of critical illness. In children, AKI is not only an independent predictor of morbidity and mortality, but is also associated with especially negative outcomes when concurrent with acute lung injury (ALI). Experimental data provide evidence that kidney-lung crosstalk occurs and can be bidirectionally deleterious, although details of the precise molecular mechanisms involved in the AKI-ALI interaction remain incomplete. Clinically, ALI, and the subsequent clinical interventions used to stabilize gas exchange, carry consequences for the homeostasis of kidney function. Meanwhile, AKI negatively affects lung physiology significantly by altering the homeostasis of fluid balance, acid-base balance, and vascular tone. Experimental AKI research supports an "endocrine" role for the kidney, triggering a cascade of extra-renal inflammatory responses affecting lung homeostasis. In this review, we will discuss the pathophysiology of kidney-lung crosstalk, the multiple pathways by which AKI affects kidney-lung homeostasis, and discuss how these phenomena may be unique in critically ill children. Understanding how AKI may affect a "balance of communication" that exists between the kidneys and the lungs is requisite when managing critically ill children, in whom imbalance is the norm.Pediatric Nephrology 01/2013; 28(12). DOI:10.1007/s00467-012-2386-3 · 2.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Acute kidney injury (AKI) leads to chronic kidney disease. The mechanisms involved with recovery from AKI are poorly understood and molecular mediators responsible for healing and restoration of kidney function are understudied. We previously discovered differential expression of matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) mRNA and protein in patients with severe sepsis associated AKI versus sepsis without AKI. Here, we demonstrate the involvement of MMP-8 in purely ischemic AKI. Mice subjected to 30 min of bilateral renal ischemia developed increased plasma creatinine and MMP-8 expression within 24 h versus sham controls. After an initial surge and subsequent return toward baseline, both kidney MMP-8 expression and activity exhibited a late increase (Days 5–7 post-ischemia reperfusion) in mice subjected to AKI. Neutrophil infiltration of the kidney was significantly higher after AKI in wild-type mice than in MMP-8 null mice, starting at 4 days. Additionally, MMP-8 null mice subjected to AKI demonstrated a persistent histopathologic and functional injury and worsened health (greater overall weight loss) versus wild-type cohorts after seven days. Taken together, our findings suggest that MMP-8 is involved with restoration of baseline kidney health after ischemic kidney injury and that a potential mechanism involves the interaction of MMP-8 and neutrophil recruitment to the site of injury.Renal Failure 01/2015; 37(3). DOI:10.3109/0886022X.2014.996842 · 0.78 Impact Factor