Impacts of two perfluorinated compounds (PFOS and PFOA) on human hepatoma cells: Cytotoxicity but no genotoxicity?
ABSTRACT Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) and particularly two of them, perfluoroctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), have been widely produced and used since 1950. They both persist in the environment and accumulate in wildlife and humans. The toxicity of PFOS and PFOA has been studied extensively in rodents with several adverse effects mainly a hepatocarcinogenic potential. Carcinogenic effects are not highlighted in humans' studies. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of PFOA and PFOS using human HepG2 cells after 1 or 24h of exposure. The cytotoxic and genotoxic potential was evaluated by MTT assay, single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay and micronucleus assay respectively. We measured the intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) using dichlorofluorescein diacetate to identify a potential mechanism of toxicity. We observed a cytotoxic effect of PFOA and PFOS after 24h of exposure starting from a concentration of 200 μM (MTT: -14.6%) and 300 μM (MTT: -51.2%) respectively. We did not observe an increase of DNA damage with the comet assay or micronucleus with the micronucleus assay after exposure to the two PFCs. After 24h of exposure, both PFOA and PFOS highlight a decrease of ROS generation (-5.9% to -23%). We did not find an effect after an hour of exposure. Our findings show that PFOA and PFOS exert a cytotoxic effect on the human cells line HepG2 but nor PFOA or PFOS could induce an increase of DNA damage (DNA strand breaks and micronucleus) or reactive oxygen species at the range concentration tested. Our results do not support that oxidative stress and DNA damage are relevant for potential adverse effects of PFOA and PFOS. These results tend to support epidemiological studies that do not show evidence of carcinogenicity.
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ABSTRACT: Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) is a fully fluorinated eight-carbon fatty acid analog with exceptional stability toward degradation that has been used as an industrial surfactant and has been detected in environmental and biological matrices. Exposures to PFOA in the workplace and in the environment have continuously stimulated investigations into its potential human health hazards. In this article, the results of fifteen unpublished genotoxicity assays conducted with perfluorooctanoate (as either the linear or linear/branched ammonium salt (APFO) or the linear/branched sodium salt) are reported and include: seven mutation assays (three in vitro reverse mutation assays with histidine auxotrophic strains of Salmonella typhimurium, two in vitro reverse mutation assays with the tryptophan auxotrophic Escherechia coli WP2uvr strain, one in vitro mitotic recombination (gene conversion) assay with Saccharomyces cerevisiae D4, and an in vitro Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) HGPRT forward mutation assay); seven studies to assess potential for chromosomal damage (three in vitro CHO chromosomal aberration studies, an in vitro human whole blood lymphocyte chromosomal aberration study, and three in vivo mouse micronucleus assays); and an in vitro C3H 10T1/2 cell transformation assay. Although PFOA has not been demonstrated to be metabolized, all in vitro assays were conducted both in the presence of and in the absence of a mammalian hepatic microsomal activation system. These assays were originally described in twelve contract laboratory reports which have been available via the United States Environmental Protection Agency public docket (Administrative Record 226) for over a decade; however, the details of these assays have not been published previously in the open scientific literature. With the exception of limited positive findings at high and cytotoxic concentrations in some assay trials which reflected the likely consequence of cytotoxic disruption of normal cellular processes and not a specific genotoxic effect, the results of the studies presented in this paper and other published results clearly demonstrate the absence of direct mutagenic or genotoxic risk associated with PFOA. This finding is consistent with the physical/chemical characteristics of PFOA and is supported by other published genotoxicity studies.Toxicology Reports 01/2014; 1. DOI:10.1016/j.toxrep.2014.05.012
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ABSTRACT: Animal studies have indicated that perfluoroalkylated substances (PFAS) increase mammary fibroadenomas. A recent case-control study in Greenlandic Inuit women showed an association between the PFAS serum levels and breast cancer (BC) risk. The present study evaluates the association between serum levels of PFAS in pregnant Danish women and the risk of premenopausal BC during a follow-up period of 10-15 years using prospectively collected exposure data during the pregnancy. Questionnaire and blood samples were taken during 1996-2002 and at the end of follow-up, all 250 BC cases and 233 frequency-matched controls were chosen for further analyses. Serum levels of ten perfluorocarboxylated acids, five perfluorosulfonated acids, and one sulfonamide (perflurooctane-sulfonamide, PFOSA) were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization in negative mode. Computer-assisted telephone interviews taken during pregnancy provided data on potential confounders. Weak positive and negative insignificant associations were found between BC risk and levels of perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA) and perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS), respectively. Grouped into quintile, the BC cases had a significant positive association with PFOSA at the highest quintiles and a negatively association for PFHxS. Sensitivity analyses excluding uncertain cases caused stronger data for PFOSA and weaker for PFHxS. No further significant associations were observed. This study does not provide convincing evidence for a causal link between PFAS exposures and premenopausal BC risks 10-15 years later.Cancer Causes and Control 08/2014; 25(11). DOI:10.1007/s10552-014-0446-7 · 2.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) include lipophilic legacy POPs and the amphiphilic perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs). They have long half-lives and bioaccumulate in the environment, animals and humans. POPs possess toxic, carcinogenic and endocrine-disrupting potentials. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are compounds that either mimic or block endogenous hormones and thus disrupt the normal hormone homeostasis. Biomonitoring assesses the internal doses of a person to provide information about chemical exposures. Effect biomarkers assess chemicals potential to affect cellular functions in vivo/ex vivo.Humans are exposed to complex mixtures of chemicals, having individually very different biological potentials and effects. Therefore, the assessment of the combined, integrated biological effect of the actual chemical mixture in human blood is important. In vitro and ex vivo cell systems have been introduced for the assessment of the integrated level of xenobiotic cellular effects in humans.Ex vivo studies have shown geographical differences in bioaccumulated POP serum levels, being reflected by the combined biomarker effects of the complex mixture extracted from human serum. Xenohormone receptor transactivities can be used as an ex vivo integrated biomarker of POP exposure and effects. Epidemiological and in vitro/ex vivo studies have supported the potential impact of the combined effect of serum POPs on the activity of hormone and/or dioxin receptors as a risk factor for human health. With focus on hormone disruption, this MiniReview will give an update on recent POP-related endocrine-disrupting effects in vitro/ex vivo/in vivo and some related genetic data.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology 05/2014; 115(1). DOI:10.1111/bcpt.12263 · 2.29 Impact Factor