To review the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database to examine the relationships between obesity, gender, and nephrolithiasis. Recent reports indicate that the prevalence of nephrolithiasis has been increasing, especially among women.
The Nationwide Inpatient Sample contains data on approximately 20% of hospital stays in the United States. Included in this analysis were discharges with primary diagnosis ICD-9 codes 592.0 (renal calculus) or 592.1 (ureteral calculus), from 1998 through 2003. All raw data were weighted to produce national estimates. Descriptive and inferential statistics were performed to determine changes in nephrolithiasis prevalence and associations of obesity and other comorbidities with nephrolithiasis.
We reviewed 181,092,957 hospital stays (weighted data). The prevalence of nephrolithiasis was relatively stable: 0.52% (149,302) in 1998 and 0.47% (147,541) in 2003. The prevalence of obesity increased from 3.06% (878,155) to 4.99% (1,575,247). The male:female ratio of patients with stones decreased from 1.6:1 to 1.2:1. Multivariate analysis revealed a statistically significant relationship (OR = 1.22, 95% CI 1.20-1.23, P <.001) between obesity and urinary stones. Obese females were more likely to develop stones than nonobese females (OR = 1.35, 95% CI 1.33-1.37, P <.001). The association between obesity and stones was weaker in males (OR = 1.04, 95% CI 1.02-1.06, P <.001).
In this sample of inpatients, obesity was associated with a significantly increased prevalence of urinary stones. This relationship was stronger in females than in males. Further studies are needed to determine whether weight reduction in obese patients affects urinary stone disease.
"One major focus of concern is the potential for adverse side effects caused by consuming cola in large quantities over time   . Serial reports indicate that side effects may be attributed to caffeine, phosphoric acid, and excessive sugar intake, the latter of which may cause obesity and contribute to subsequent chronic conditions including urinary stones . It is postulated that excessive long-term intake of cola may cause hypokalemia myopathy and alkalosis due to high levels of caffeine . "
"The present work analyzes the metabolic pattern of overweight and obese stone formers (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) to find differences related to the kidney stone disease. Contrarily to previous studies, high body weight was not positively associated with kidney stones in our patients
[13-15]. We found that the serum concentration of AST, fasting glucose and triglycerides were higher in stone formers, suggesting that stone production may be associated with an altered handling of glucose and triglycerides and with a liver disorder. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nephrolithiasis is more frequent and severe in obese patients from different western nations. This may be supported by higher calcium, urate, oxalate excretion in obese stone formers. Except these parameters, clinical characteristics of obese stone formers were not extensively explored.
In the present paper we studied the relationship between obesity and its metabolic correlates and nephrolithiasis.Materials and methods: We studied 478 Caucasian subjects having BMI >= 25 kg/m2. The presence of nephrolithiasis, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome were noted. They underwent measurements of anthropometry (BMI and waist circumference, body composition), serum variables (fasting glucose, serum lipids and serum enzymes) and Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) nutritional questionnaire.
45 (9.4%) participants were stone formers. Subjects with high serum concentrations of triglycerides (>=150 mg/dl), fasting glucose (> 100 mg/dl) and AST (>30 U/I in F or >40 U/I in M) were more frequent among stone formers than non-stone formers.Multinomial logistic regression confirmed that kidney stone production was associated with high fasting glucose (OR = 2.6, 95%CI 1.2-5.2, P = 0.011), AST (OR = 4.3, 95%CI 1.1-16.7, P = 0.033) and triglycerides (OR = 2.7, 95%CI 1.3-5.7, P = 0.01).MedDiet score was not different in stone formers and non-stone formers. However, stone formers had a lower consumption frequency of olive oil and nuts, and higher consumption frequency of wine compared with non-stone formers.
Overweight and obese stone formers may have a defect in glucose metabolism and a potential liver damage. Some foods typical of Mediterranean diet may protect against nephrolithiasis.
Journal of Translational Medicine 02/2014; 12(1):34. DOI:10.1186/1479-5876-12-34 · 3.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nephrolithias is a common problem in populations around the world, and contribute significantly to the development of end stage renal disease. It is a matter of debate whether the metabolic factors responsible for renal stone formation are similar or variable in different populations around the globe. This review discusses the influence of different metabolic and dietary factor, and some other co-morbid conditions on the etiopathogenesis Nephrolithiasis. Evaluation and medical management of Nephrolithiasis is summarized in the later part of the article.
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