The Relationship of Obesity and Gender Prevalence Changes in United States Inpatient Nephrolithiasis
ABSTRACT To review the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database to examine the relationships between obesity, gender, and nephrolithiasis. Recent reports indicate that the prevalence of nephrolithiasis has been increasing, especially among women.
The Nationwide Inpatient Sample contains data on approximately 20% of hospital stays in the United States. Included in this analysis were discharges with primary diagnosis ICD-9 codes 592.0 (renal calculus) or 592.1 (ureteral calculus), from 1998 through 2003. All raw data were weighted to produce national estimates. Descriptive and inferential statistics were performed to determine changes in nephrolithiasis prevalence and associations of obesity and other comorbidities with nephrolithiasis.
We reviewed 181,092,957 hospital stays (weighted data). The prevalence of nephrolithiasis was relatively stable: 0.52% (149,302) in 1998 and 0.47% (147,541) in 2003. The prevalence of obesity increased from 3.06% (878,155) to 4.99% (1,575,247). The male:female ratio of patients with stones decreased from 1.6:1 to 1.2:1. Multivariate analysis revealed a statistically significant relationship (OR = 1.22, 95% CI 1.20-1.23, P <.001) between obesity and urinary stones. Obese females were more likely to develop stones than nonobese females (OR = 1.35, 95% CI 1.33-1.37, P <.001). The association between obesity and stones was weaker in males (OR = 1.04, 95% CI 1.02-1.06, P <.001).
In this sample of inpatients, obesity was associated with a significantly increased prevalence of urinary stones. This relationship was stronger in females than in males. Further studies are needed to determine whether weight reduction in obese patients affects urinary stone disease.
Article: Nephrolitiasis: Endocrine evaluation[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Nephrolithias is a common problem in populations around the world, and contribute significantly to the development of end stage renal disease. It is a matter of debate whether the metabolic factors responsible for renal stone formation are similar or variable in different populations around the globe. This review discusses the influence of different metabolic and dietary factor, and some other co-morbid conditions on the etiopathogenesis Nephrolithiasis. Evaluation and medical management of Nephrolithiasis is summarized in the later part of the article.03/2012; 16(2):228-35. DOI:10.4103/2230-8210.93740
Article: Editorial Comment.Urology 09/2012; DOI:10.1016/j.urology.2012.07.032 · 2.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between the body mass index and the size of renal stones in a group of patients with urolithiasis. METHODS: One-hundred seventy-three patients with renal stones were enrolled. Body mass index was calculated on the basis of height and weight measurements, and stone size was either measured accurately (143 patients) or estimated by the radiologist or managing urologist (30 patients). Body mass index and stone size were then cross-tabulated and the results were analyzed. RESULTS: Patients with a body mass index of ≥25 kg/m(2) (overweight or obese) were found to have 29 (16.8%) small, 84 (48.5%) medium, and 25 (14.5%) large stones, whereas patients in the underweight or normal body mass index categories had 7 (9.5%) small, 19 (10.9%) medium, and 9 (10.6%) large stones. Of the study group, 109/173 (63%) were found to be overweight or obese, of whom all had renal stones ≥1 cm, ie, medium or large, when measured at the greatest diameter, indicating a tendency to have larger stones with increasing body mass index that was statistically significant (P = .0001). CONCLUSION: A clear relationship exists between increased body mass index and renal stone size, with overweight and obese patients having medium and large stones more frequently than patients with underweight or normal body mass index.Urology 09/2012; 80(5). DOI:10.1016/j.urology.2012.07.027 · 2.13 Impact Factor