The vasorelaxant effect of the lectin of Pisum arvense (PAL) seeds was investigated in rat aorta. PAL (10-100 µg/ml) was applied on aorta rings, with or without endothelium, pre-contracted with phenylephrine (Phe; 0.1 µM). Participation of endothelium derived relaxant factors was evaluated incubating the tissue with indomethacin (10 µM), L-nitro arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 100 µM) and tetraethylammonium (TEA, 5 mM) before addition of PAL. The role of the lectin domain was investigated by addition of PAL into tissue in presence of glucose (3x 10⁻⁵ M), or N-acetyl Dglucosamine (GlcNAc; 3 x 10⁻⁴ M). The importance of extracellular calcium (Ca²⁺e) or interaction with muscarinic receptors in the relaxant effect was evaluated by addition of PAL into aorta rings containing calcium free solution (OCa) and atropine (1 µ M), respectively. PAL induced concentration-dependent relaxation in endothelized aorta (IC50 =58.38 ± 1.87 µg/ml), which was reversed by L-NAME and glucose. The lectin effect was totally inhibited when the preparation was inserted in OCa, but not in presence of atropine. Summarizing, our data showed a relaxant effect of PAL in isolated rat aorta rings in presence of endothelium, suggestive of interaction between the lectin carbohydrate binding sites with specific receptors located in vascular endothelial cells leading to nitric oxide synthase activation. This effect seems to require Ca²⁺e but is independent on muscarinic receptors interaction.
"Lectins have also been purified and characterized f SC (Chumkhunthod et al., 2006). Lectins isolated from Pisum arvense seeds exert relaxing effects on isolated rat aorta rings through the increase in NO synthesis (Assreuy et al., 2011). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Schizophyllum commune (SC) is widely consumed by Chinese, especially in southern part of China. The aim of the present study was to assess the extract of SC on vascular tone and the mechanisms involved. Experiments were performed on aorta of 18-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats. Dried SC was extracted with 50% ethanol, 90% ethanol and deionized water, respectively. The effects of SC on the isometric tension of rat aortic rings were measured. Protein expression for the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) was also determined in the primarily cultured rat aortic arterial endothelial cells (RAECs). The results showed that the water extract of SC induced a marked relaxation in aortic rings with or without endothelium. After the pretreatments of Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester, indomethacin, RP-cAMP, and methylene blue, the SC-induced relaxation was significantly decreased. In addition, the contraction due to Ca2+ influx and intracellular Ca2+ release was also inhibited by SC. Furthermore, expression of the eNOS protein was significantly elevated in RAECs after treatment of SC. In conclusion, the water extract of SC induces an endothelium-dependent and -independent relaxation in rat aorta. The relaxing effect of SC involves the modulation of NO-cGMP-dependent pathways, PGI2-cAMP-depedent pathways, Ca2+ influx though calcium channels and intracellular Ca2+ release.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The red algae Gelidium crinale (Turner) Gaillon (Gelidiaceae), encountered along the Southeast and Northeast Brazilian sea coast, contains a sulfated galactan presenting a similar saccharide backbone compared to λ carrageenan. Inflammatory effects of other galactans were reported, but not for that obtained from G. crinale (SG-Gc).
To investigate the in vivo edematogenic effect of SG-Gc in comparison to λ carrageenan.
SG-Gc was isolated by ion exchange chromatography. Paw edema was induced by subcutaneous (s.c.) intraplantar injection of SG-Gc or λ carrageenan and evaluated by hydroplethysmometry. Data were expressed as the increase in paw volume subtracted from the basal volume or area under curve-AUC. To investigate the participation of early and late-phase inflammatory mediators, rats were treated with pyrilamine, compound 48/80, indomethacin, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), or pentoxifylline before SG-Gc.
SG-Gc edematogenic effect was initiated at 0.5 h, peaked at 2 h (1.26 ± 0.05 mL) and lasted until 6 h (0.21 ± 0.03 mL), whereas the carrageenan-induced edema started at 1 h. The first phase (1-3 h) of SG-Gc-induced edema was 176 ± 15 (AUC) versus carrageenan (114.5 ± 14), whereas the second phase (3-5 h) was 95 ± 12 (AUC) versus carrageenan (117.5 ± 11). Treatment with compound 48/80, pyrilamine, indomethacin, L-NAME, and pentoxifylline inhibited the effect of SG-Gc by 32, 40, 69, 72, and 49%, respectively.
SG-Gc and λ carrageenan induce different profile of inflammatory response in the paw edema model, that involves histamine, cytokines, prostaglandins, and nitric oxide (NO), but with different degree of participation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alpinia zerumbet is used in folk medicine in the Brazil to treatment of hypertension. However, several pathways involved in the mechanism of vasorelaxation are still unclear. This study was designed to verify the antihypertensive effect of the methanolic fraction of the essential oil of Alpinia zerumbet (MFEOAz) and to characterize its mechanism of action. The thoracic aortic rings from the Wistar rats were perfused in the organ chambers filled with Kreb's solution, where the tension of each ring was measured. The antihypertensive effect of MFEOAz was assessed in rats submitted to chronic hypertension by inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis by indirect measurement of blood pressure with indirect tail cuff method. MFEOAz relaxed phenylephrine and KCl -induced contraction of either endothelium-intact or endothelium-denuded rat aortic rings in a concentration-dependent manner. Pre-incubation with MFEOAz (100 and 300 μg/mL) in Ca(2+)-free Krebs solution attenuated phenylephrine- or caffeine-induced contraction. Pre-incubation with L-NAME, ODQ, wortmannin, atropine, indomethacin, catalase, SOD, TEA, 4-aminopyridine, glibenclamide, apamin, charybdotoxin, or iberiotoxin did not affect MFEOAz-induced relaxation. The intragastric administration of MFEOAz induced an antihypertensive effect. MFEOAz it seems inhibited the calcium influx via voltage-operated calcium channels and receptor-operated calcium channels, as well as inhibition of calcium mobilization from intracellular stores.
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