Recent advances in immunotherapy for the treatment of prostate cancer.
ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Prostate cancer vaccines attempt to induce cancer-specific systemic immune responses and represent a new class of targeted therapies, many of which are non-toxic. Several vaccine technologies are in development. AREAS COVERED: An autologous antigen presenting cell vaccine loaded with prostate acid phosphatase conjugated with GM-CSF, sipuleucel-T confers a survival advantage in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and is now FDA approved based on the IMPACT trial. A poxvirus-based vaccine, PROSTVAC-VF TRICOM targeting prostate-specific antigen (PSA), has demonstrated improved survival in a randomized Phase II trial of patients with metastatic CRPC. Novel T lymphocyte checkpoint inhibitors of cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 and programmed death-1 are also emerging. Recognition of improved survival without an earlier clinical signal of activity by conventional criteria has led to new guidelines to evaluate immunotherapeutic agents. The clinical benefit of combining vaccines with chemotherapy, radiotherapy and other immunotherapeutic and biologic agents is being evaluated in the context of disappointing results of combination GVAX vaccine and docetaxel chemotherapy. EXPERT OPINION: To build on the success of early phase trials, efforts must be made to optimize vaccine approaches and patient selection.
[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In the United States, prostate cancer is the most frequent malignancy in men and ranks second in terms of mortality. Although recurrent or metastatic disease can be managed initially with androgen ablation, most patients eventually develop castration-resistant disease within a number of years, for which conventional treatments (eg, chemotherapy) provide only modest benefits. In the last few years, immunotherapy has emerged as an exciting therapeutic modality for advanced prostate cancer, and this field is evolving rapidly. Encouragingly, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has recently approved two novel immunotherapy agents for patients with advanced cancer: the antigen presenting cell-based product sipuleucel-T and the anti-CTLA4 (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4) antibody ipilimumab, based on improvements in overall survival in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer and metastatic melanoma, respectively. Currently, a number of trials are investigating the role of various immunological approaches for the treatment of prostate cancer, many of them with early indications of success. As immunotherapy for prostate cancer enters its golden age, the challenge of the future will be to design rational combinations of immunotherapy agents with each other or with other standard prostate cancer treatments in an effort to improve patient outcomes further.Clinical Medicine Insights: Oncology 01/2012; 6:263-73.
[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Most cancer patients are treated with some combination of surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. Despite recent advances in local therapy with curative intent, chemotherapeutic treatments for metastatic disease often remain unsatisfying due to severe side effects and incomplete long-term remission. Therefore, the evaluation of novel therapeutic options is of great interest. Conventional, along with newer treatment strategies target the immune system that suppresses genitourinary (GU) malignancies. Metastatic renal cell carcinoma and non-muscle-invasive bladder caner represent the most immune-responsive types of all human cancer. This review examines the rationale and emerging evidence supporting the anticancer activity of immunotherapy, against GU malignancies.Journal of Oncology 01/2012; 2012:397267.