Systematic review and meta-analysis on the rate of postoperative venous thromboembolism in orthopaedic surgery in Asian patients without thromboprophylaxis
ABSTRACT Postoperative venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common life-threatening complication after surgery. This review analysed the rate and mortality of VTE after orthopaedic surgery in Asia.
Inclusion criteria were: prospective study; deep vein thrombosis (DVT) diagnosed by venography or ultrasonography; hip fracture surgery (HFS), total hip arthroplasty (THA) or total knee arthroplasty (TKA); and no thromboprophylaxis. The pooled proportion was back-calculated by Freeman-Tukey variant transformation, using a random-effects model.
Twenty-two studies (total population 2454) published from 1979 to 2009 were included. Using venography, the pooled rates of all-site, proximal, distal and isolated distal DVT were 31·7, 8·9, 22·5 and 18·8 per cent respectively. With duplex ultrasonography, the respective rates were 9·4, 5·9, 5·9 and 5·8 per cent. After THA or HFS, using venography, the pooled rates of all-site and proximal DVT were 25·8 and 9·6 per cent; with ultrasonography, the respective rates were 10·8 and 7·2 per cent. In TKA groups, using venography, the pooled rates of all-site and proximal DVT were 42·5 and 8·7 per cent; with ultrasonography, the respective rates were 9·5 and 5·2 per cent. The overall pooled rates of symptomatic DVT and symptomatic pulmonary embolism (PE) were 4·5 and 0·6 per cent. No patient died from PE (pooled rate 0·2 per cent).
None of these Asian patients undergoing orthopaedic surgery died from VTE. Pooled rates of proximal and symptomatic DVT were lower than in Western reports.
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ABSTRACT: The annual number of hip fractures worldwide is expected to exceed 6 million by 2050. Currently, nearly 50% of hip fracture patients will develop at least one short-term complication including infection, delirium, venous thromboembolism (VTE), pressure ulcers or cardiovascular events. More than half will experience an adverse long-term outcomes including worsened ambulation or functional status, additional fractures and excess mortality. This paper summarizes current evidence for postoperative interventions attempting to improve these outcomes, including pain management, anemia management, delirium prevention strategies, VTE prophylaxis, rehabilitation type, nutritional supplements, anabolic steroids and secondary fracture prevention. Models of care that have been tested in this population including interdisciplinary orthogeriatric services, clinical pathways and hospitalist care are summarized. In general, good quality evidence supports routine use of VTE prophylaxis, and moderate quality evidence supports multifactorial delirium prevention protocols, and a conservative transfusion strategy. Aggressive pain control with higher doses of opiates and/or regional blocks are associated with lower delirium rates. Low-moderate quality evidence supports the use of clinical pathways, and dedicated orthogeriatric consultative services or wards. After hospital discharge, good quality evidence supports the use of bisphosphonates for secondary fracture prevention and mortality reduction. Rehabilitation services are important, but evidence to guide quantity, type or venue is lacking. Additional research is needed to clarify the role of nutritional supplements, anabolic steroids, home care and psychosocial interventions.12/2012; 1:241. DOI:10.1038/bonekey.2012.241
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ABSTRACT: The general gynecologic and neurologic surgeries are regard as carrying moderate risk for postoperative venous thromboembolism (VTE). This review analyzed the postoperative VTE rate of these surgeries in Asia. Inclusion criteria were: prospective study; deep vein thrombosis (DVT) diagnosed by venography, ultrasonography, or radionucleotide scan; and no thromboprophylaxis. The pooled proportion was back calculated from Freeman-Tukey variant transformation, using a random effect model. Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and KoreaMed were searched. Fourteen studies (total population of 1,625) published from 1974 to 2008 were included. In general surgery, the pooled rate of all-sites proximal, isolated distal DVT was 13.4, 2.1, and 11.8 % (radionucleotide scan). The cancer patients carried a higher all-sites DVT rate (19.7 % radionucleotide scan and 17.4 % ultrasound). Gynecologic and neurologic surgery had 3.1 % (ultrasound) and 3.8 % (radionucleotide scan) all-sites DVT rate. For general, gynecologic, and neurologic patients, the pooled rates of symptomatic DVT were 1.5, 0.2, and 1.0 % respectively. The pooled rate of symptomatic pulmonary embolism (PE) was 0.4 % for general surgery. No patients died from PE (pooled rate 0.2 %); however, a single PE death was reported in the excluded study. Postoperative symptomatic VTE was relatively low in Asia. Further study is required to stratify VTE risk and the need for thromboprophylaxis in individual patients.World Journal of Surgery 10/2013; 38(1). DOI:10.1007/s00268-013-2222-3 · 2.35 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Thromboprophylaxis with rivaroxaban has proved effective and safe in patients undergoing hip and knee replacement surgery. As it is unclear whether it is also effective and safe in fracture patients, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban in patients with lower limb fractures. We performed a retrospective cohort study of 2,050 consecutive patients treated for lower limb fractures at our trauma center, comparing rates of venous thromboembolism (VTE), bleeding and surgical complications, and the length of hospital stay for 608 patients who received rivaroxaban and 717 who received a low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH). Rates of symptomatic VTE were 4.9 and 8.6 % in the rivaroxaban and LMWH groups, respectively (p = 0.008), and distal VTE rates were 1.8 and 5.7 %, respectively (p = 0.036). The incidence of major bleeding events in the rivaroxaban group was also lower than in the LMWH group (0.2 vs 0.6 %), but the difference between the groups was not statistically significant. The mean length of hospital stay was significantly shorter in the rivaroxaban group (12.2 vs 13.1 days, respectively; p = 0.016). This retrospective cohort study is the first report documenting the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban in patients with lower extremity fractures. In comparison with LMWH, rivaroxaban reduced the incidence of VTE by 45 % without increasing the risk of bleeding. However, prospective, randomized controlled trials comparing rivaroxaban and LMWH are needed to confirm our findings.Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis 01/2014; 38(3). DOI:10.1007/s11239-013-1046-1 · 2.04 Impact Factor