Television Viewing and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes, Cardiovascular Disease, and All-Cause Mortality A Meta-analysis

Institute of Sport Science and Clinical Biomechanics, Department of Exercise Epidemiology, Center of Research in Childhood Health, University of Southern Denmark, Odense.
JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association (Impact Factor: 35.29). 06/2011; 305(23):2448-55. DOI: 10.1001/jama.2011.812
Source: PubMed


Prolonged television (TV) viewing is the most prevalent and pervasive sedentary behavior in industrialized countries and has been associated with morbidity and mortality. However, a systematic and quantitative assessment of published studies is not available.
To perform a meta-analysis of all prospective cohort studies to determine the association between TV viewing and risk of type 2 diabetes, fatal or nonfatal cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality.
Relevant studies were identified by searches of the MEDLINE database from 1970 to March 2011 and the EMBASE database from 1974 to March 2011 without restrictions and by reviewing reference lists from retrieved articles. Cohort studies that reported relative risk estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations of interest were included.
Data were extracted independently by each author and summary estimates of association were obtained using a random-effects model.
Of the 8 studies included, 4 reported results on type 2 diabetes (175,938 individuals; 6428 incident cases during 1.1 million person-years of follow-up), 4 reported on fatal or nonfatal cardiovascular disease (34,253 individuals; 1052 incident cases), and 3 reported on all-cause mortality (26,509 individuals; 1879 deaths during 202,353 person-years of follow-up). The pooled relative risks per 2 hours of TV viewing per day were 1.20 (95% CI, 1.14-1.27) for type 2 diabetes, 1.15 (95% CI, 1.06-1.23) for fatal or nonfatal cardiovascular disease, and 1.13 (95% CI, 1.07-1.18) for all-cause mortality. While the associations between time spent viewing TV and risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease were linear, the risk of all-cause mortality appeared to increase with TV viewing duration of greater than 3 hours per day. The estimated absolute risk differences per every 2 hours of TV viewing per day were 176 cases of type 2 diabetes per 100,000 individuals per year, 38 cases of fatal cardiovascular disease per 100,000 individuals per year, and 104 deaths for all-cause mortality per 100,000 individuals per year.
Prolonged TV viewing was associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality.

1 Follower
61 Reads
  • Source
    • "The prevalence of delirium in the ICU varies greatly, with reports ranging from 16% to 80% [7] [8] [9] [10] [11]. Patient characteristics or comorbidities might affect this prevalence. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Delirium is an acute form of nervous system dysfunction often observed in patients in the intensive care unit. Endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) is considered a minimally invasive surgical treatment for abdominal aortic aneurysm. Although the operation method is widely used, there are few investigations of the rate and risk factors of delirium development after the operation. In this study, we retrospectively examined the rate of delirium development in the intensive care unit (ICU) after EVAR, as well as the associated preoperative risk factors and effects on the lengths of ICU and hospital stays. We examined the 81 consecutive patients who underwent elective EVAR between November 2013 and August 2014. The Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist was used to diagnose delirium. Twenty patients (24.7%) were diagnosed with delirium in this study. The ICU and hospital length of stays of patients with delirium were 3.3 ± 2.4 days and 14.5 ± 11.9 days, respectively, the latter of which was significantly longer than that of patients without delirium ( p = 0.019 ). Additionally, renal dysfunction, preoperative benzodiazepine use, and intraoperative transfusion were found to be risk factors for the development of delirium after elective EVAR.
    Critical care research and practice 09/2015; 2015(4):405817. DOI:10.1155/2015/405817
  • Source
    • "Accordingly, the increasing amount of access young children have to technology both at home and at school has led many researchers to debate how the use of digital media is affecting them mentally and physically. Overexposure to traditional media use, such as watching TV, has been associated with obesity, sleep problems, aggressive behavior and attention deficits in preschool children (Christakis, Ebel, Rivara, & Zimmerman, 2004; Christakis, Zimmerman, DiGiuseppe, & McCarty, 2004; Grøntved & Hu, 2011; Thompson & Christakis, 2005). Today, children and teenagers are spending a large amount of time using new technology such as smartphones and iPads, without reducing time spent engaged in traditional forms of screen media like TV. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Technology is now ubiquitous with almost 3.2 billion people of the world’s current population online (International Telecommunications Union, 2015).Whilst technology offers opportunities for entertainment and education, vulnerable populations such as the developing infant require specific and careful consideration. Fourteen percent of infants (aged 6 to 23 months) watch at least two hours of media per day and one third of children under 3 have a television (TV) in their bedroom (Zimmerman, Christakis, & Meltzoff, 2007a). Twenty five percent of 3-year-olds go online daily (Bernstein & Levine, 2011) and 28% of 3 to 4-year-olds now use tablet computers (Ofcom, 2014). Children are growing up with a digital foundation, they are interacting with and immersed in Cyberspace where they learn, entertain themselves and play. During the first three years of life, the brain creates some 700 new neural connections every second. Synapse formation for key developmental functions such as hearing, language and cognition peak during this time, creating a critical foundation for higher-level functions (Zero to Three, 2015). Very young children are becoming experts at using technology and are true digital natives. But what long-term effects will this early exposure have from a developmental perspective? Researchers are now investigating how interactive media may affect children both mentally and physically (American Academy of Paediatrics, 2011; Radesky, Schumacher, & Zuckerman, 2014). Screen time research has traditionally focused on the impact of TV on children (Linebarger & Walker, 2005). However, TV is a passive experience and results may not be applicable compared to highly interactive screen technology such as tablets and smartphones. Some argue that ‘judicious use’ of interactive media is acceptable for infants under 2 years (Christakis, 2014). However, Canada, France, Australia, Japan, Taiwan and South Korea have urged limits on children’s screen time (Boseley, 2012; Tanimura, Okuma, & Kyoshima, 2007). Legislation has recently been introduced in Taiwan to limit children’s unhealthy use of electronic devices (Locker, 2015). Research and recommendations are urgently required regarding the impact of technology on infants and very young children, particularly as the effect of traditional and interactive screen time is potentially developmentally and cyberpsychologically significant in this age group.
  • Source
    • "Mental Health and Physical Activity (Bowman, 2006; Fung et al., 2000; Jakes et al., 2003; Marshall, Biddle, Gorely, Cameron, & Murdey, 2004), neck and low back pain (Kuster, 2004), metabolic syndrome (Dunstan et al., 2005; Gao, Nelson, & Tucker, 2007; Wijndaele et al., 2009), atherosclerosis (Kronenberg et al., 2000), sleep problems (Basner & Dinges, 2009) and others (Dunstan, Howard, Healy, & Owen, 2012; Grontved & Hu, 2011). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Time spent watching TV by Europeans has been calculated to be 22.1 h per week on average and it has shown to be correlated with a series of physical and mental problems in adults. Very little research is available in population over 65. This study aimed at evaluating the association between TV viewing and mental disorders and cognitive performance, taking into account the general physical activity level and socio-demographic characteristics in Europe. Methods Within the MentDis-ICF65+ study, a subsample of 1383 subjects aged 65-84 years were assessed by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI65+) and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) for physical activity evaluation. Time spent in watching TV was assessed through a self report instrument. Results Forty-three per cent of the total sample watched TV for 5-7 days a week for 2 or more hours every day. Females, people who lived alone, older subjects and those with lower education significantly watched TV for a longer time. Stepwise multiple regression showed statistically significant inverse correlation between Mini-Mental State Examination scores and TV viewing time (p < 0.001). Apart from a negative association with Major Depressive Disorder, no particular associations were found between TV viewing and psychopathological diagnoses. Conclusions Given the relationship of time spending watching TV with cognitive impairment, awareness should be raised about the possible negative effects of TV viewing on the elderly and programs to reduce TV viewing time should be set up.
    Mental Health and Physical Activity 12/2014; 8. DOI:10.1016/j.mhpa.2014.11.002
Show more


61 Reads
Available from