Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP4) deficiency increases Th1-driven allergic contact dermatitis.
ABSTRACT CD26 or dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP4) is known to be involved in several immunological processes and has recently been reported to play a crucial role in the allergic responses of the lungs.
To explore the impact of DPP4 on the allergic response of the skin.
Skin biopsies from patients suffering from atopic dermatitis (AD) and healthy controls were investigated for the expression of CD26/DPP4. Furthermore, the functional impact of CD26 was investigated in two models of contact hypersensitivity using CD26/DPP4-deficient and wild-type rats. Dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) was used to induce a T helper type 1 (Th1)-dominated inflammation and toluene-2,3-diisocyanate for a Th2-pronounced inflammation. The inflammatory responses were determined by histological quantification, flow cytometry [fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS)], and an enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA).
CD26/DPP4-expression was up-regulated in the lesional skin biopsies of patients compared with healthy controls as well as in both models of contact hypersensitivity. However, in the more Th2-driven model, a reduced inflammatory skin response was found in CD26/DPP4-deficient rats, analogous to the effects observed recently in a rat model of asthma. In partial contrast, there was an aggravation of local skin inflammation in CD26/DPP4-deficient rats under conditions of Th1-like skin inflammation.
The up-regulation of CD26 in atopic dermatitis represents a new finding, which has also been seen in other inflammatory skin diseases. However, tissue expression of CD26/DPP4 in immunological skin response can either be beneficial or aggravating, depending on a possible Th1/Th2 shift. This might have consequences for humans suffering from diabetes mellitus treated by DPP4 inhibitors, who have eczematous skin diseases as a co-morbidity.
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ABSTRACT: Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV) is a ubiquitous, multifunctional, serine protease enzyme and receptor with roles in the control of endocrine and immune function, cell metabolism, growth and adhesion. As an enzyme, DPP IV cleaves the N-terminal dipeptide from the incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide. This inactivates the hormones, thereby cancelling their prandial insulinotropic effect. One approach to restore incretin activity as a therapy for Type 2 diabetes has been the development of DPP IV inhibitors. Inhibitors of DPP IV have shown efficacy and tolerability when used to control the hyperglycaemia of noninsulin-dependent animal models and human Type 2 diabetes. These DPP IV inhibitors prolong active incretin hormone concentrations and may exert additional antidiabetic effects. If long-term clinical trials confirm sustained and safe control of blood glucose, DPP IV inhibitors (known as 'gliptins') may be expected to provide a new treatment modality for Type 2 diabetes.Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs 10/2006; 11(3):525-39. · 2.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: CD26 expression on keratinocytes, in both normal and pathological skin, was investigated using immunohistochemical techniques. A sporadic focal CD26 positivity was found in normal skin, whereas increased expression of CD26 was observed both in cutaneous T-cell lymphomas and in inflammatory skin diseases, e.g. psoriasis, lichen planus and spongiotic dermatitis, in the basal and spinous layers. CD26 keratinocyte staining was not specific for a single disease, but seems to be associated with the presence of a reactive or neoplastic infiltrate in the epidermis. We propose that the CD26 molecule may function as a keratinocyte activation antigen.British Journal of Dermatology 07/1996; 134(6):1052-6. · 3.76 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: As CD26 (dipeptidyl peptidase 4/DPP4) rapidly truncates incretins N-terminally, including glucagon-like peptide-1, DPP4-inhibitors have been developed for treatment of diabetes type 2. To some extent this is surprising, as CD26/DPP4 is also deeply involved in immune regulation. Long-term pharmacological studies are hampered by off-target inhibition of DPP4-homologues. Therefore, we studied the effects of genetic CD26/DPP4-deficiency by investigating blood, spleen and thymus leucocyte subpopulations of wild-type and CD26-deficient F344-rats at different ages. In young animals at 1 and 3 months of age, there were no differences in leucocyte subsets, while in older animals the T cell composition was changed significantly. From the age of 6 months onwards, reduced numbers of recent thymic emigrants and memory T cells, and consequently an increased amount of naive T cells were observed in CD26-deficient rats. In addition, the architecture of the thymus was altered, as observed by a reduced density of lymphocytes in the medulla. Furthermore, the number of proliferating cells in the thymus was decreased in CD26-deficient rats at a higher age. Moreover, CD26-deficiency resulted in markedly reduced numbers of B cells in later life. Additionally, an age- but not CD26-dependent increase of regulatory T cells and a decrease of natural killer cell numbers were detected in the blood and spleen. Our findings indicate an important role of CD26 in maintaining lymphocyte composition, memory T cell generation and thymic emigration patterns during immunosenescence, with possible implications for using DPP4-inhibitors.Clinical & Experimental Immunology 01/2009; 155(2):357-65. · 3.41 Impact Factor