Triterpenoids with neurotrophic activity from Ganoderma lucidum
ABSTRACT A new triterpenoid, 4,4,14α-trimethyl-5α-chol-7,9(11)-dien-3-oxo-24-oic acid (1), together with seven known triterpenoids, were isolated from the dried fruiting bodies of Ganoderma lucidum. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses. Bioassay results revealed that compounds 1 and methyl ganoderic acid B (5) had nerve growth factor-like neuronal survival-promoting effects, whereas compounds 1, and 4-7 showed brain-derived neurotrophic factor-like neuronal survival-promoting activities.
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ABSTRACT: Drugs dedicated to alleviate neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson's and Alzheimer's have always been associated with debilitating side effects. Medicinal mushrooms which harness neuropharmacological compounds offer a potential possibility for protection against such diseases. Pleurotus giganteus (formerly known as Panus giganteus) has been consumed by the indigenous people in Peninsular Malaysia for many years. Domestication of this wild mushroom is gaining popularity but to our knowledge, medicinal properties reported for this culinary mushroom are minimal. The fruiting bodies P. giganteus were analysed for its nutritional values. Cytotoxicity of the mushroom's aqueous and ethanolic extracts towards PC12, a rat pheochromocytoma cell line was assessed by using 3-[4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Neurite outgrowth stimulation assay was carried out with nerve growth factor (NGF) as control. To elucidate signaling mechanisms involved by mushroom extract-induced neurite outgrowth, treatment of specific inhibitor for MEK/ERK and PI3K signalling pathway was carried out. The fruiting bodies of P. giganteus were found to have high carbohydrate, dietary fibre, potassium, phenolic compounds and triterpenoids. Both aqueous and ethanolic extracts induced neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells in a dose- and time-dependant manner with no detectable cytotoxic effect. At day 3, 25 μg/ml of aqueous extract and 15 μg/ml of ethanolic extract showed the highest percentage of neurite-bearing cells, i.e. 31.7 ± 1.1% and 33.3 ± 0.9%; respectively. Inhibition treatment results suggested that MEK/ERK and PI3K/Akt are responsible for neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells stimulated by P. giganteus extract. The high potassium content (1345.7 mg/100 g) may be responsible for promoting neurite extension, too. P. giganteus contains bioactive compounds that mimic NGF and are responsible for neurite stimulation. Hence, this mushroom may be developed as a nutraceutical for the mitigation of neurodegenerative diseases.BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 07/2012; 12:102. DOI:10.1186/1472-6882-12-102 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The metabolites and pharmacokinetics of ganoderic acid C2 (GAC2), a bioactive triterpenoid in Ganoderma lucidum in rat plasma were investigated by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). Totally, ten minor phase I metabolites of GAC2 were characterized after oral administration of GAC2, on the basis of their mass fragmentation pathways or direct comparison with authentic compounds by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and electrospray ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n)), and liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization hybrid ion trap and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-IT-TOF/MS) methods. Moreover, a rapid and specific method for quantification of GAC2 in rat plasma after oral administration was developed by using a liquid-liquid extraction procedure and HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis. It is the first time to report the metabolites and pharmacokinetics of GAC2.Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis 03/2013; 75:64-73. DOI:10.1016/j.jpba.2012.11.024 · 2.83 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The fruits of Alpinia oxyphylla are used as healthcare products for the protection on neurons and prevention of dementia. Two new noreudesmane sesquiterpenoids, (5R,7S,10S)-5-hydroxy-13-noreudesma-3-en-2,11-dione (1) and (10R)-13-noreudesma-4,6-dien-3,11-dione (2), and a new eudesmane sesquiterpenoid, (5S,8R,10R)-2-oxoeudesma-3,7(11)-dien-12,8-olide (3), as well as 12 known sesquiterpenoids, were isolated from the fruits of A. oxyphylla. The structures of the new compounds (1-3) were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data and circular dichroism experiments. All isolates were evaluated their neuroprotective potential by inhibitory assay on nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mouse microglia BV-2 cells.Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters 05/2013; 23(13). DOI:10.1016/j.bmcl.2013.04.072 · 2.33 Impact Factor