The Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor Inhibitor Sunitinib Causes a Preeclampsia-Like Syndrome With Activation of the Endothelin System
ABSTRACT Angiogenesis inhibition is an established treatment for several tumor types. Unfortunately, this therapy is associated with adverse effects, including hypertension and renal toxicity, referred to as "preeclampsia." Recently, we demonstrated in patients and in rats that the multitarget tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib induces a rise in blood pressure (BP), renal dysfunction, and proteinuria associated with activation of the endothelin system. In the current study we investigated the effects of sunitinib on rat renal histology, including the resemblance with preeclampsia, as well as the roles of endothelin 1, decreased nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, and increased oxidative stress in the development of sunitinib-induced hypertension and renal toxicity. In rats on sunitinib, light and electron microscopic examination revealed marked glomerular endotheliosis, a characteristic histological feature of preeclampsia, which was partly reversible after sunitinib discontinuation. The histological abnormalities were accompanied by an increase in urinary excretion of endothelin 1 and diminished NO metabolite excretion. In rats on sunitinib alone, BP increased (ΔBP: 31.6±0.9 mm Hg). This rise could largely be prevented with the endothelin receptor antagonist macitentan (ΔBP: 12.3±1.5 mm Hg) and only mildly with Tempol, a superoxide dismutase mimetic (ΔBP: 25.9±2.3 mm Hg). Both compounds could not prevent the sunitinib-induced rise in serum creatinine or renal histological abnormalities and had no effect on urine nitrates but decreased proteinuria and urinary endothelin 1 excretion. Our findings indicate that both the endothelin system and oxidative stress play important roles in the development of sunitinib-induced proteinuria and that the endothelin system rather than oxidative stress is important for the development of sunitinib-induced hypertension.
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ABSTRACT: Angiogenesis inhibition, targeting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) or its receptors, is an established treatment for solid tumors. A common side effect of this treatment is the development of sometimes severe hypertension. This hypertension is associated with a decrease in nitric oxide production, activation of the endothelin-signaling pathway and renin suppression. The mechanism underlying activation of the endothelin-signaling pathway is not fully understood. Both activation of endothelial cells and disinhibition of the VEGF-induced suppression of endothelin production by endothelial cells may be involved. The development of hypertension can be a reason to discontinue the angiogenesis inhibitor, thereby compromising anticancer treatment, but possibly is also a biomarker for a favorable antitumor response. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.Current Opinion in Pharmacology 12/2014; 21C:7-13. DOI:10.1016/j.coph.2014.11.010 · 4.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Women with preeclampsia display low renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activity and a high antiangiogenic state, the latter characterized by high levels of soluble Fms-like tyrosine kinase (sFlt)-1 and reduced placental growth factor levels. To investigate whether renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system suppression in preeclampsia is because of this disturbed angiogenic balance, we measured mean arterial pressure, creatinine, endothelin-1 (ET-1), and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system components in pregnant women with a high (≥85; n=38) or low (<85; n=65) soluble Fms-like tyrosine kinase-1/placental growth factor ratio. Plasma ET-1 levels were increased in women with a high ratio, whereas their plasma renin activity and plasma concentrations of renin, angiotensinogen, and aldosterone were decreased. Plasma renin activity-aldosterone relationships were identical in both the groups. Multiple regression analysis revealed that plasma renin concentration correlated independently with mean arterial pressure and plasma ET-1. Plasma ET-1 correlated positively with soluble Fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 and negatively with plasma renin concentration, and urinary protein correlated with plasma ET-1 and mean arterial pressure. Despite the lower plasma levels of renin and angiotensinogen in the high-ratio group, their urinary levels of these components were elevated. Correction for albumin revealed that this was because of increased glomerular filtration. Subcutaneous arteries obtained from patients with preeclampsia displayed an enhanced, AT2 receptor-mediated response to angiotensin II. In conclusion, a high antiangiogenic state associates with ET-1 activation, which together with the increased mean arterial pressure may underlie the parallel reductions in renin and aldosterone in preeclampsia. Because ET-1 also was a major determinant of urinary protein, our data reveal a key role for ET-1 in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Finally, the enhanced angiotensin responsiveness in preeclampsia involves constrictor AT2 receptors. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.Hypertension 04/2015; DOI:10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.115.05267 · 7.63 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Ramucirumab is a novel antiangiogenic agent approved as second-line therapy for patients with advanced stomach cancer and gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma. Although existing evidence from clinical trials has demonstrated hypertension is one of the major adverse events of this agent, overall risks have yet to be reported. We carried out a meta-analysis of published studies to determine the overall incidence and relative risk (RR) of hypertension associated with ramucirumab. Statistical analyses were conducted to calculate the summary incidence, RRs, and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) by using a random effects model. Eleven studies with a total of 3,851 patients with multiple cancers were included. The overall incidence of all-grade hypertension was 20.0 % (95 % CI 15.0-26.0) with 8.6 % (95 % CI 6.3-11.7) being high-grade hypertension. The risk of developing hypertension was greater in ramucirumab-treated patients (RR for all grades 2.77, 95 % CI 1.94-3.94, p < 0.001, RR for high-grade 3.58, 95 % CI 2.45-5.23, p < 0.001). Administration of ramucirumab to patients with cancer is associated with increased risk of hypertension.Clinical Drug Investigation 02/2015; DOI:10.1007/s40261-015-0272-z · 1.70 Impact Factor