Puberty and influencing factors in schoolgirls living in Istanbul: end of the secular trend?
ABSTRACT To (1) establish the median ages at menarche and pubertal stages and investigate influential factors and (2) assess the secular trend in reaching puberty in a transitional society.
A probit method was used to calculate the median age at menarche and pubertal stages from a cross-sectional study of 4868 healthy schoolgirls (aged 6-18 years) in Istanbul, Turkey. The findings were compared with those from a similar study performed 4 decades earlier. Logistic regression was used to analyze the associations between the odds of attaining puberty stages and putatively influential factors. Simple statistical models were used to test the effects of BMI and consumption of certain foods on the onset of menarche.
The median age at menarche is 12.74 years. The median ages at breast stages 2 through 5 are 9.65, 10.10, 11.75, and 14.17 years, respectively, and at pubic-hair stages 2 through 5 are 10.09, 11.19, 12.33, and 14.68 years, respectively. Girls from upper socioeconomic classes are more likely to reach menarche and B4 and B5 stages. Higher BMI seems to be a promoting factor for attaining menarche. Intrauterine growth and gestational age had no effect. The average age at menarche was not associated with the consumption of milk, eggs, chicken, or fish.
The secular trend in puberty is probably about to end in Turkey. Although the median ages at the breast stages show a decreasing trend, the median age at menarche is approximately the same as it was 4 decades ago. Socioeconomic status and BMI are important, and related, factors that affect the age at menarche and pubertal stages.
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ABSTRACT: Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the girls referred to the pediatric outpatient clinic with a presumptive diagnosis of early puberty due to early onset of breast development or pubarche. Methods: Within the study period, we evaluated 289 subjects referred for concerns about early onset of puberty. History, anthropometric data, bone age (BA), hormones including luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, as well as pelvic ultrasonography (USG)-derived ovarian and uterine volumes were analyzed. Results: Of the 289 girls referred for early onset of pubertal development, 64 (22.1%) had false alarms for puberty. Of the remaining 225 girls, 41 (18.2%) were diagnosed as premature pubarche, 56 (24.9%) as premature thelarche (PT), and 128 (56.9%) as precocious puberty (PP). Girls with early-onset puberty had more advanced BA, greater uterine and ovarian volumes, and also higher LH values than subjects with PP and PT. Nearly half of these girls were 7-8 years of age. Body mass index (BMI) standard deviation score was significantly higher in the PP cases. Conclusions: There is a need for primary care physicians to be more knowledgeable on puberty and on puberty problems. There seems to be a preponderance of PP in 7-8-year-old children . Increased BMI may have a role in the trend towards earlier onset of puberty.Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology 12/2012; 4(4):208-12.
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ABSTRACT: To assess and compare the secular trend in age at menarche in Dutch girls (1955-2009) and girls from Turkish and Moroccan descent living in the Netherlands (1997-2009). Data on growth and maturation were collected in 20,867 children of Dutch, Turkish and Moroccan descent in 2009 by trained health care professionals. Girls, 9 years and older, of Dutch (n = 2138), Turkish (n = 282), and Moroccan (n = 295) descent were asked whether they had experienced their first period. We compared median menarcheal age in 2009 with data from the previous Dutch Nationwide Growth Studies in 1955, 1965, 1980 and 1997. Age specific body mass index (BMI) z-scores were calculated to assess differences in BMI between pre- and postmenarcheal girls in different age groups. Median age at menarche in Dutch girls, decreased significantly from 13.66 years in 1955 to 13.15 years in 1997 and 13.05 years in 2009. Compared to Dutch girls there is a larger decrease in median age of menarche in girls of Turkish and Moroccan descent between 1997 and 2009. In Turkish girls age at menarche decreased from 12.80 to 12.50 years and in Moroccan girls from 12.90 to 12.60 years. Thirty-three percent of Turkish girls younger than 12 years start menstruating in primary school. BMI-SDS is significantly higher in postmenarcheal girls than in premenarcheal girls irrespective of age. There is a continuing secular trend in earlier age at menarche in Dutch girls. An even faster decrease in age at menarche is observed in girls of Turkish and Moroccan descent in the Netherlands.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(4):e60056. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: As a transitional society, rapid changes have occurred in the social, economic, nutritional and lifestyle aspects of the Turkish population over the last three decades. As a result, the prevalence of overweight and obesity has shown a dramatic increase in the adult Turkish population, reaching figures as high as 30-40%. Although there is no nationwide figure regarding the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Turkish children and adolescents, several local studies performed between 2000 and 2010 in different regions of the country have demonstrated varying prevalence rates of 10.3%-17.6% and 1.9%-7.8% for overweight and obesity, respectively, in children aged 6-16 years. The differences in the figures obtained in these regions are thought to be due to variations in the subject sampling. The figures appear to vary depending on residential (urban vs. rural) and economic conditions. Belonging to a high-income family, living in a large city, having obese parents, being of high birth weight, consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (soft drinks, juice drinks, etc.), and spending time in front of TV and PC were identified as the most common risk factors. Complications and co-morbidities of obesity have also started to appear in our pediatric population. Metabolic syndrome, diagnosed according to the International Diabetes Federation criteria, was found in 2.3% of Turkish schoolchildren aged 10-19 years. This rate was 28% in obese children. Preventive public measures have started to be implemented by the State and other bodies to control the rising trends in obesity.Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology 03/2012; 4(1):1-7.