Puberty and influencing factors in schoolgirls living in Istanbul: end of the secular trend?

Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Marmara University, School of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey.
PEDIATRICS (Impact Factor: 4.47). 06/2011; 128(1):e40-5. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2010-2267
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To (1) establish the median ages at menarche and pubertal stages and investigate influential factors and (2) assess the secular trend in reaching puberty in a transitional society.
A probit method was used to calculate the median age at menarche and pubertal stages from a cross-sectional study of 4868 healthy schoolgirls (aged 6-18 years) in Istanbul, Turkey. The findings were compared with those from a similar study performed 4 decades earlier. Logistic regression was used to analyze the associations between the odds of attaining puberty stages and putatively influential factors. Simple statistical models were used to test the effects of BMI and consumption of certain foods on the onset of menarche.
The median age at menarche is 12.74 years. The median ages at breast stages 2 through 5 are 9.65, 10.10, 11.75, and 14.17 years, respectively, and at pubic-hair stages 2 through 5 are 10.09, 11.19, 12.33, and 14.68 years, respectively. Girls from upper socioeconomic classes are more likely to reach menarche and B4 and B5 stages. Higher BMI seems to be a promoting factor for attaining menarche. Intrauterine growth and gestational age had no effect. The average age at menarche was not associated with the consumption of milk, eggs, chicken, or fish.
The secular trend in puberty is probably about to end in Turkey. Although the median ages at the breast stages show a decreasing trend, the median age at menarche is approximately the same as it was 4 decades ago. Socioeconomic status and BMI are important, and related, factors that affect the age at menarche and pubertal stages.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: Bisphenol A (BPA) is an industrial chemical, particularly used to harden plastics. BPA is thought to have negative health effects on both laboratory animals and humans. Consider ing the decline in age of onset of puberty noted in recent years, particularly among girls, the importance of BPA as an estrogenic endocrine disruptor has increased. In this study, we aimed to determine urinary BPA levels in girls with idiopathic central precocious puberty (ICPP). Methods: Non-obese girls newly diagnosed with ICPP (n=28, age 4-8 years) constituted the study group. The control group consisted of 25 healthy age-matched girls with no history of ICPP or any other endocrine disorder. Urinary BPA levels were measured by using high-performance liquid chromatography.Results: In the ICPP group, urinary BPA levels were significantly higher compared to the control group [median 8.34 (0.84-67.35) μg/g creatinine and 1.62 (0.3-25.79) μg/g creatinine, respectively (OR=8.68, 95% CI:2.03-32.72, p=0.001)]. There was no marked correlation between urinary BPA levels and body mass index in either group. In the ICPP group, no significant correlations were found between urinary BPA levels and serum luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone and estradiol levels. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first study evaluating the urinary BPA levels in Turkish girls with ICPP. Our results indicate that the estrogenic effects of BPA may be an etiologic factor in ICPP.
    Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology 03/2014; 6(1):16-21.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: Puberty and adolescence are important periods about mental health, particularly for women. Relationship between age of menarche, psychiatric complaints during adolescence and family stories of psychiatric disorders are investigated. Materials and methods: The study is conducted with 61 patients with schizophrenia, 35 patients with bipolar affective disorder, 40 patients with depressive disorder and 60 healthy control subjects. All subjects were evaluated with SCID-I and questionnaire fit for the aim of the study was fulfilled. Results: Bipolar affective disorder had a stronger relationship with menarche, psychiatric problems during adolescence were related with early onset of illness in schizophrenia and bipolar groups. Family story of psychiatric illness was related with psychological problems during puberty in schizophrenia group. Conclusion: This study underlies the puberty and adolescence period for psychiatric illness. An integrative clinical approach is suggested while examining the psychiatric illness at the basis of engaged roles of hormonal effects of menarche, social effect of puberty psychiatric complaints and genetical and psychosocial burden of family story of illness.
    Gynecological Endocrinology 08/2013; · 1.30 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study is to estimate the trend in age at menarche in the Korean female and evaluate the relationship between age at menarche and adult body mass index (BMI), which is a indicator of later-life health.
    Annals of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism. 06/2013; 18(2):60-4.