Pandemic and seasonal influenza viruses among patients with acute respiratory illness in Kashmir (India)

Sheri-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India.
Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses (Impact Factor: 1.9). 05/2011; 5(6):e521-7. DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-2659.2011.00261.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT With the emergence of pandemic influenza A (2009A/H1N1) virus in India, we sought to determine the prevalence and clinical presentations of seasonal and pandemic influenza viruses among acute respiratory illness (ARI) patients from Srinagar, a temperate climate area in northern India, during the peak winter season.
Combined throat and nasal swabs, obtained from 194 (108 male) presenting with ARI from January to March 2010 (Week 53-week 10), were tested by RT-PCR for influenza A and B, including 2009A/H1N1 viruses. HA1 gene of selected 2009A/H1N1-positive samples was sequenced, and phylogenetic analysis was carried out.
Twenty-one (10·8%, age 15-80 years, median age 40 years) patients tested positive for influenza viruses: 13 (62%) for 2009A/H1N1 virus, 6 (28·5%) for seasonal influenza A (H3N2), and 2 (9·5%) for influenza B. Twelve of the 13 patients with 2009A/H1N1 presented with febrile ARI, and eight had associated comorbidities. All of the patients recovered. Phylogenetic analysis of HA gene (n = 8) revealed that all strains from Srinagar clustered in 2009A/H1N1 clade seven along with the other 2009A/H1N1 strains from India. Amino acid substitutions in the HA protein defining clade seven (P83S, S203T, and I321V) were found in almost all isolates from Srinagar.
Both seasonal and 2009A/H1N1 viruses appear to be associated with ARI in Srinagar. The 2009A/H1N1 in Srinagar is genetically similar to globally circulating clade 7 strains, with unique signature sequences in the HA gene. Further investigations into ascertain the role of these mutations in possible alteration of the virulence and transmissibility of the virus are needed.

Download full-text


Available from: Parvaiz A Koul, Sep 24, 2014
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Influenza surveillance was carried out in a subset of patients with influenza-like illness (ILI) presenting at an Employee Health Clinic (EHS) at All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi (urban) and pediatric out patients department of civil hospital at Ballabhgarh (peri-urban), under the Comprehensive Rural Health Services Project (CRHSP) of AIIMS, in Delhi region from January 2007 to December 2010. Of the 3264 samples tested, 541 (17%) were positive for influenza viruses, of which 221 (41%) were pandemic Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, 168 (31%) were seasonal influenza A, and 152 (28%) were influenza B. While the Influenza viruses were detected year-round, their types/subtypes varied remarkably. While there was an equal distribution of seasonal A(H1N1) and influenza B in 2007, predominance of influenza B was observed in 2008. At the beginning of 2009, circulation of influenza A(H3N2) viruses was observed, followed later by emergence of Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 with co-circulation of influenza B viruses. Influenza B was dominant subtype in early 2010, with second wave of Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in August-September, 2010. With the exception of pandemic H1N1 emergence in 2009, the peaks of influenza activity coincided primarily with monsoon season, followed by minor peak in winter at both urban and rural sites. Age group analysis of influenza positivity revealed that the percent positivity of Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus was highest in >5-18 years age groups (OR 2.5; CI = 1.2-5.0; p = 0.009) when compared to seasonal influenza. Phylogenetic analysis of Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 from urban and rural sites did not reveal any major divergence from other Indian strains or viruses circulating worldwide. Continued surveillance globally will help define regional differences in influenza seasonality, as well as, to determine optimal periods to implement influenza vaccination programs among priority populations.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(1):e29129. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0029129 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Please cite this paper as: Bali NK et al. (2012) Knowledge, attitude, and practices about the seasonal influenza vaccination among healthcare workers in Srinagar, India. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-2659.2012.00416.x. Background  Healthcare workers (HCWs) universally have a poor uptake of influenza vaccination. However, no data are available from India. Objective  To explore knowledge, attitudes, and practices associated with influenza vaccination in HCWs in a temperate climate area in northern India. Patients and Methods  A self-administered questionnaire was offered to all HCWs in three major hospitals of Srinagar and information sought on motivations, perceptions, preferences and practices regarding influenza vaccination. Results  Of the 1750 questionnaires received, 1421 (81%) were returned. Only 62 (4·4%) HCWs had ever received influenza vaccination even as 1348 (95%) believed that influenza poses adverse potential consequences for themselves or their contacts; 1144 (81%) were aware of a vaccine against influenza and 830 (58%) of its local availability. Reasons cited by 1359 participants for not being vaccinated included ignorance about vaccine availability (435; 32%), skepticism about efficacy (248; 18%), busy schedule (166; 12%), fear of side effects (70; 4%), and a perception of not being-at-risk (82; 6%). Sixty-one percent (865) believed that vaccine programs are motivated by profit. Eighty-eight percent opined for mandatory vaccination for HCWs caring for the high-risk patients, as a part of 'employee health program'. Most of the participants intended to get vaccinated in the current year even as 684 (48%) held that vaccines could cause unknown illness and 444 (31%) believed their adverse effects to be underreported. Conclusion  Influenza vaccination coverage among HCWs is dismally low in Srinagar; poor knowledge of vaccine availability and misperceptions about vaccine effectiveness, fear of adverse effects and obliviousness to being-at-risk being important barriers. Multifaceted, adaptable measures need to be invoked urgently to increase the coverage.
    Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 08/2012; 7(4). DOI:10.1111/j.1750-2659.2012.00416.x · 1.90 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Some parts of world, including India observed a recrudescent wave of influenza A/H1N1pdm09 in 2012. We undertook a study to examine the circulating influenza strains, their clinical association and antigenic characteristics to understand the recrudescent wave of A/H1N1pdm09 from November 26, 2012 to Feb 28, 2013 in Kashmir, India. Of the 751 patients (545 outpatient and 206 hospitalized) presenting with acute respiratory infection at a tertiary care hospital in Srinagar; 184 (24.5%) tested positive for influenza. Further type and subtype analysis revealed that 106 (58%) were influenza A (H1N1pdm09 =105, H3N2=1) and 78 (42%) were influenza B. The influenza positive cases had a higher frequency of chills, nasal discharge, sore throat, body aches and headache, compared to influenza negative cases. Of the 206 patients hospitalized for pneumonia/acute respiratory distress syndrome or an exacerbation of an underlying lung disease, 34 (16.5%) tested positive for influenza (22 for H1N1pdm09, 11 for influenza B). All influenza-positive patients received oseltamivir and while most patients responded well to antiviral therapy and supportive care, 6 patients (4 with H1N1pdm09 and 2 with influenza B) patients died of progressive respiratory failure and multi-organ dysfunction. Following a period of minimal circulation, H1N1pdm09 re-emerged in Kashmir in 2012-2013, causing serious illness and fatalities. As such the healthcare administrators and policy planners need to be wary and monitor the situation closely.
    01/2013; 5. DOI:10.1371/currents.outbreaks.f1241c3a2625fc7a81bf25eea81f66e6