Article

Rapid changes in connexin-43 in response to genotoxic stress stabilize cell-cell communication in corneal endothelium.

Department of Ophthalmology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA.
Investigative ophthalmology & visual science (Impact Factor: 3.43). 06/2011; 52(8):5174-82. DOI: 10.1167/iovs.11-7272
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To determine how corneal endothelial (CE) cells respond to acute genotoxic stress through changes in connexin-43 (Cx43) and gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC).
Cultured bovine CE cells were exposed to mitomycin C or other DNA-damaging agents. Changes in the levels, stability, binding partners, and trafficking of Cx43 were assessed by Western blot analysis and immunostaining. Live-cell imaging of a Cx43-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein was used to evaluate internalization of cell surface Cx43. Dye transfer and fluorescent recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) assessed GJIC.
After genotoxic stress, Cx43 accumulated in large gap junction plaques, had reduced zonula occludens-1 binding, and displayed increased stability. Live-cell imaging of Cx43-GFP plaques in stressed CE cells revealed reduced gap junction internalization and degradation compared to control cells. Mitomycin C enhanced transport of Cx43 from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface and formation of gap junction plaques. Mitomycin C treatment also protected GJIC from disruption after cytokine treatment.
These results show a novel CE cell response to genotoxic stress mediated by marked and rapid changes in Cx43 and GJIC. This stabilization of cell-cell communication may be an important early adaptation to acute stressors encountered by CE.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
68 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Zonula Occludens (ZOs) proteins are ubiquitous scaffolding proteins providing the structural basis for the assembly of multiprotein complexes at the cytoplasmic surface of the plasma membrane and linking transmembrane proteins to the filamentous cytoskeleton. They belong to the large family of membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK)-like proteins comprising a number of subfamilies based on domain content and sequence similarity. ZO proteins were originally described to localize specifically to tight junctions, or Zonulae Occludentes, but this notion was rapidly reconsidered since ZO proteins were found to associate with adherens junctions as well with gap junctions, particularly with connexin-made intercellular channels, and also with a few other membrane channels. Accumulating evidences reveal that in addition to having passive scaffolding functions in organizing gap junction complexes, including connexins and cytoskeletals, ZO proteins (particularly ZO-1) also actively take part in the dynamic function as well as in the remodeling of junctional complexes in a number of cellular systems. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Reciprocal influences between cell cytoskeleton and membrane channels, receptors and transporters".
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 07/2013; · 4.66 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: HYS-32 [4-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-3-(naphthalen-2-yl)-2(5H)-furanone] is a new analogue of the anti-tumor compound combretastatin A-4 containing a cis-stilbene moiety. In this study, we investigated its effects on Cx43 gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) and the signaling pathway involved in rat primary astrocytes. Western blot analyses showed that HYS-32 dose- and time-dependently upregulated Cx43 expression. A confocal microscopic study and scrape-loading/dye transfer analyses demonstrated that HYS-32 (5 μM) induced microtubule coiling, accumulation of Cx43 in gap junction plaques, and increased GJIC in astrocytes. The HYS-32-induced microtubule coiling and Cx43 accumulation in gap junction plaques was reversed when HYS-32 was removed. Treatment of astrocytes with cycloheximide resulted in time-dependent degradation of Cx43, which was delayed by co-treatment with HYS-32 by increasing the half-life of Cx43. Co-treatment with HYS-32 also prevented the LPS-induced downregulation of Cx43 and inhibition of GJIC in astrocytes. HYS-32 induced activation of PKC, ERK, and JNK, and co-treatment with the PKC inhibitor Go6976 or the ERK inhibitor PD98059, but not the JNK inhibitor SP600125, prevented the HYS-32-induced increase in Cx43 expression and GJIC. Go6976 suppressed the HYS-32-induced PKC phosphorylation and increase in phospho-ERK levels, while PD98059 did not prevent the HYS-32-induced increase in phospho-PKC levels, suggesting that PKC is an upstream effector of ERK. In conclusion, our results show that HYS-32 increases the half-life of Cx43 and enhances Cx43 expression and GJIC in astrocytes via a PKC-ERK signaling cascade. These novel biological effects of HYS-32 on astrocyte gap junctions support its potential for therapeutic use as a protective agent for the central nervous system.
    Neurochemistry International 03/2013; · 2.66 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Members of the highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed pleiotropic CK1 family play major regulatory roles in many cellular processes including DNA-processing and repair, proliferation, cytoskeleton dynamics, vesicular trafficking, apoptosis, and cell differentiation. As a consequence of cellular stress conditions, interaction of CK1 with the mitotic spindle is manifold increased pointing to regulatory functions at the mitotic checkpoint. Furthermore, CK1 is able to alter the activity of key proteins in signal transduction and signal integration molecules. In line with this notion, CK1 is tightly connected to the regulation and degradation of β-catenin, p53, and MDM2. Considering the importance of CK1 for accurate cell division and regulation of tumor suppressor functions, it is not surprising that mutations and alterations in the expression and/or activity of CK1 isoforms are often detected in various tumor entities including cancer of the kidney, choriocarcinomas, breast carcinomas, oral cancer, adenocarcinomas of the pancreas, and ovarian cancer. Therefore, scientific effort has enormously increased (i) to understand the regulation of CK1 and its involvement in tumorigenesis- and tumor progression-related signal transduction pathways and (ii) to develop CK1-specific inhibitors for the use in personalized therapy concepts. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge regarding CK1 regulation, function, and interaction with cellular proteins playing central roles in cellular stress-responses and carcinogenesis.
    Frontiers in oncology. 01/2014; 4:96.

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
5 Downloads
Available from
May 27, 2014