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    ABSTRACT: Molecular data on rubella viruses are limited in Uganda despite the importance of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). Routine rubella vaccination, while not administered currently in Uganda, is expected to begin by 2015. The World Health Organization recommends that countries without rubella vaccination programs assess the burden of rubella and CRS before starting a routine vaccination program. Uganda is already involved in integrated case-based surveillance, including laboratory testing to confirm measles and rubella, but molecular epidemiologic aspects of rubella circulation have so far not been documented in Uganda. Twenty throat swab or oral fluid samples collected from 12 districts during routine rash and fever surveillance between 2003 and 2012 were identified as rubella virus RNA positive and PCR products encompassing the region used for genotyping were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis of the 20 sequences identified 19 genotype 1G viruses and 1 genotype 1E virus. Genotype-specific trees showed that the Uganda viruses belonged to specific clusters for both genotypes 1G and 1E and grouped with similar sequences from neighboring countries. Genotype 1G was predominant in Uganda. More epidemiological and molecular epidemiological data are required to determine if genotype 1E is also endemic in Uganda. The information obtained in this study will assist the immunization program in monitoring changes in circulating genotypes. J. Med. Virol. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Medical Virology 04/2014; · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background. Previous studies of maternal, fetal, and neonatal complications of measles during pregnancy suggest the possibility of increased risk for morbidity and mortality. In 2009-2011, a nationwide laboratory-confirmed measles outbreak occurred in Namibia, with 38% of reported cases among adults. This outbreak provided an opportunity to describe clinical features of measles in pregnant women and assess the relative risk for adverse maternal, fetal and neonatal outcomes. Methods. A cohort of pregnant women with clinical measles was identified retrospectively from six district hospitals and clinics over a 12-month period. Each pregnant woman with measles was matched with three pregnant women without measles, randomly selected from antenatal clinic registers at the same hospital during the same time interval. We reviewed hospital and clinic records and conducted in-person interviews to collect demographic and clinical information on the pregnant women and their infants. Findings. Of 55 pregnant women with measles, 53 (96%) were hospitalized; measles-related complications included diarrhea (60%), pneumonia (40%), and encephalitis (5%). Among pregnant women with known HIV status, 15% of those without measles and 19% of those with measles were HIV-positive. Of 42 measles-related pregnancies with known outcomes, 25 (60%) had ≥1 adverse maternal, fetal or neonatal outcome and five women (12%) died. Compared with 172 pregnancies without measles, after adjusting for age, pregnancies with measles had significantly increased risks for neonatal low birth weight (adjusted relative risk [aRR]=3.5; 95% CI=1.5,8.2), spontaneous abortion (aRR=5.9; 95% CI=1.8,19.7), intra-uterine fetal death (aRR=9.0; 95% CI=1.2,65.5), and maternal death (aRR=9.6; 95% CI=1.2,70.0). Interpretation. Our findings suggest that measles virus infection during pregnancy confers a high risk of adverse maternal, fetal and neonatal outcomes, including maternal death. Maximizing measles immunity among women of childbearing age would decrease the incidence of gestational measles and the attendant maternal, fetal, and neonatal morbidity and mortality.
    Clinical Infectious Diseases 01/2014; · 9.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In seven southern African countries (Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland and Zimbabwe), following implementation of a measles mortality reduction strategy starting in 1996, the number of annually reported measles cases decreased sharply to less than one per million population during 2006-2008. However, during 2009-2010, large outbreaks occurred in these countries. In 2011, a goal for measles elimination by 2020 was set in the World Health Organization (WHO) African Region (AFR). We reviewed the implementation of the measles control strategy and measles epidemiology during the resurgence in the seven southern African countries. Estimated coverage with routine measles vaccination, supplemental immunization activities (SIA), annually reported measles cases by country, and measles surveillance and laboratory data were analyzed using descriptive analysis. In the seven countries, coverage with the routine first dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) decreased from 80% to 65% during 1996-2004, then increased to 84% in 2011; during 1996-2011, 79,696,523 people were reached with measles vaccination during 45 SIAs. Annually reported measles cases decreased from 61,160 cases to 60 cases and measles incidence decreased to <1 case per million during 1996-2008. During 2009-2010, large outbreaks that included cases among older children and adults were reported in all seven countries, starting in South Africa and Namibia in mid-2009 and in the other five countries by early 2010. The measles virus genotype detected was predominantly genotype B3. The measles resurgence highlighted challenges to achieving measles elimination in AFR by 2020. To achieve this goal, high two-dose measles vaccine coverage by strengthening routine immunization systems and conducting timely SIAs targeting expanded age groups, potentially including young adults, and maintaining outbreak preparedness to rapidly respond to outbreaks will be needed.
    Vaccine 02/2014; · 3.49 Impact Factor


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Sep 13, 2014