Article

Functional specializations of intestinal dendritic cell and macrophage subsets that control Th17 and regulatory T cell responses are dependent on the T cell/APC ratio, source of mouse strain, and regional localization.

Vaccine Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA.
The Journal of Immunology (Impact Factor: 5.36). 06/2011; 187(2):733-47. DOI: 10.4049/jimmunol.1002701
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Although several subsets of intestinal APCs have been described, there has been no systematic evaluation of their phenotypes, functions, and regional localization to date. In this article, we used 10-color flow cytometry to define the major APC subsets in the small and large intestine lamina propria. Lamina propria APCs could be subdivided into CD11c(+)CD11b(-), CD11c(+)CD11b(+), and CD11c(dull)CD11b(+) subsets. CD11c(+)CD11b(-) cells were largely CD103(+)F4/80(-) dendritic cells (DCs), whereas the CD11c(+)CD11b(+) subset comprised CD11c(+)CD11b(+)CD103(+)F4/80(-) DCs and CD11c(+)CD11b(+)CD103(-)F4/80(+) macrophage-like cells. The majority of CD11c(dull)CD11b(+) cells were CD103(-)F4/80(+) macrophages. Although macrophages were more efficient at inducing Foxp3(+) regulatory T (T(reg)) cells than DCs, at higher T cell/APC ratios, all of the DC subsets efficiently induced Foxp3(+) T(reg) cells. In contrast, only CD11c(+)CD11b(+)CD103(+) DCs efficiently induced Th17 cells. Consistent with this, the regional distribution of CD11c(+)CD11b(+)CD103(+) DCs correlated with that of Th17 cells, with duodenum > jejunum > ileum > colon. Conversely, CD11c(+)CD11b(-)CD103(+) DCs, macrophages, and Foxp3(+) T(reg) cells were most abundant in the colon and scarce in the duodenum. Importantly, however, the ability of DC and macrophage subsets to induce Foxp3(+) T(reg) cells versus Th17 cells was strikingly dependent on the source of the mouse strain. Thus, DCs from C57BL/6 mice from Charles River Laboratories (that have segmented filamentous bacteria, which induce robust levels of Th17 cells in situ) were more efficient at inducing Th17 cells and less efficient at inducing Foxp3(+) T(reg) cells than DCs from B6 mice from The Jackson Laboratory. Thus, the functional specializations of APC subsets in the intestine are dependent on the T cell/APC ratio, regional localization, and source of the mouse strain.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Timothy Denning, Jul 04, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
211 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Developing efficacious vaccines against enteric diseases is a global challenge that requires a better understanding of cellular recruitment dynamics at the mucosal surfaces. The current paradigm of T cell homing to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract involves the induction of α4β7 and CCR9 by Peyer's patch and mesenteric lymph node (MLN) dendritic cells (DCs) in a retinoic acid-dependent manner. This paradigm, however, cannot be reconciled with reports of GI T cell responses after intranasal (i.n.) delivery of antigens that do not directly target the GI lymphoid tissue. To explore alternative pathways of cellular migration, we have investigated the ability of DCs from mucosal and nonmucosal tissues to recruit lymphocytes to the GI tract. Unexpectedly, we found that lung DCs, like CD103(+) MLN DCs, up-regulate the gut-homing integrin α4β7 in vitro and in vivo, and induce T cell migration to the GI tract in vivo. Consistent with a role for this pathway in generating mucosal immune responses, lung DC targeting by i.n. immunization induced protective immunity against enteric challenge with a highly pathogenic strain of Salmonella. The present report demonstrates novel functional evidence of mucosal cross talk mediated by DCs, which has the potential to inform the design of novel vaccines against mucosal pathogens.
    Journal of Experimental Medicine 08/2013; 210(9). DOI:10.1084/jem.20122762 · 13.91 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: CD103(+)CD11b(+) dendritic cells (DCs) represent the major migratory DC population within the small intestinal lamina propria (SI-LP), but their in vivo function remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that intestinal CD103(+)CD11b(+) DC survival was dependent on interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4). Mice with a DC deletion in Irf4 displayed reduced numbers of intestinal interleukin 17 (IL-17)-secreting helper T 17 (Th17) cells and failed to support Th17 cell differentiation in draining mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) following immunization. The latter was associated with a selective reduction in CD103(+)CD11b(+) MLN DCs and DC derived IL-6. Immunized Il6(-/-) mice failed to support Th17 cell differentiation in MLN in vivo and CD103(+)CD11b(+) MLN DCs supported IL-6-dependent Th17 cell differentiation in vitro. Together, our results suggest a central role for IRF4-dependent, IL-6 producing CD103(+)CD11b(+) DCs in intestinal Th17 cell differentiation.
    Immunity 05/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.immuni.2013.03.009 · 19.75 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Recent insights into discrete myeloid developmental pathways have provided critical information about the organization of the murine mononuclear phagocyte compartment. Short-lived dendritic cells (DCs) have been shown to continuously arise from dedicated bone marrow-derived precursors. In contrast, it is now appreciated that most tissue macrophage populations are established before birth and subsequently maintain themselves throughout adulthood by longevity and limited self-renewal. Both of these classical tissue-resident mononuclear phagocyte compartments can be complemented on demand by monocyte infiltrates giving rise to macrophage or DC-like cells, depending on the tissue context they encounter upon extravasation. Monocytes hence have emerged as a versatile emergency squad that can be rapidly recruited to sites of injury to provide a transient supplement with proinflammatory or resolving activities for local mononuclear phagocytes.
    Advances in Immunology 01/2013; 120:69-103. DOI:10.1016/B978-0-12-417028-5.00003-X · 5.53 Impact Factor