Ablation of ventricular arrhythmias in arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy: arrhythmia-free survival after endo-epicardial substrate based mapping and ablation.
ABSTRACT In patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy, freedom from ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) after endocardial ablation is limited. We compared the long-term freedom from recurrent VAs by using endocardial-alone ablation versus endo-epicardial substrate-based ablation.
Forty-nine patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy undergoing ablation of ventricular tachycardia (VT) were divided into 2 groups: endocardial-alone ablation (group 1, n = 23) and endo-epicardial ablation (group 2, n = 26). All patients had an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD). Conventional and 3D mappings were used to determine the mechanism of induced VTs and to identify area of "scar" or "abnormal" myocardium. All critical sites responsible for VTs and points with "abnormal" potential were targeted for ablation from endocardium (group 1) or from both endocardium and epicardium (group 2). The procedural end point was noninducibility of sustained, monomorphic VT with isoproterenol. The presence of frequent premature ventricular contractions at the end of ablation was recorded. Patients were followed up by ECG, Holter, and ICD interrogation. After a follow-up of at least 3 years, freedom from VAs or ICD therapy was 52.2% (12/23) in group 1 and 84.6% (22/26) in group 2 (P = 0.029), with 21.7% (5/23) and 69.2% (18/26) patients off antiarrhythmic drugs (P < 0.001), respectively. Compared with patients with no premature ventricular contractions after ablation, patients with frequent premature ventricular contractions after ablation were more likely to have VA recurrence/ICD therapy [3/33 (9%) versus 12/16 (75%); log-rank P<0.001].
An endo-epicardial-based ablation strategy achieves higher long-term freedom from recurrent VAs off antiarrhythmic therapy in patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy when compared with endocardial-alone ablation. The presence of ≥ 10 premature ventricular contractions per minute after ablation is associated with more VA recurrence.
- SourceAvailable from: J. Peter van Tintelen[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (AC), also known as arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy (ARVD/C), is a hereditary disease characterised by ventricular arrhythmias, right ventricular and/or left ventricular dysfunction, and fibrofatty replacement of cardiomyocytes. Patients with AC typically present between the second and the fourth decade of life with ventricular tachycardias. However, sudden cardiac death (SCD) may be the first manifestation, often at young age in the concealed stage of disease. AC is diagnosed by a set of clinically applicable criteria defined by an international Task Force. The current Task Force Criteria are the essential standard for a correct diagnosis in individuals suspected of AC. The genetic substrate for AC is predominantly identified in genes encoding desmosomal proteins. In a minority of patients a non-desmosomal mutation predisposes to the phenotype. Risk stratification in AC is imperfect at present. Genotype-phenotype correlation analysis may provide more insight into risk profiles of index patients and family members. In addition to symptomatic treatment, prevention of SCD is the most important therapeutic goal in AC. Therapeutic options in symptomatic patients include antiarrhythmic drugs, catheter ablation, and ICD implantation. Furthermore, patients with AC and also all pathogenic mutation carriers should be advised against practising competitive and endurance sports.Netherlands heart journal: monthly journal of the Netherlands Society of Cardiology and the Netherlands Heart Foundation 05/2014; · 1.41 Impact Factor
- International journal of cardiology 04/2014; · 6.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Arrhythmogenic ventricular cardiomyopathy (AVC) is generally referred to as arrhythmogenic right ventricular (RV) cardiomyopathy/dysplasia and constitutes an inherited cardiomyopathy. Affected patients may succumb to sudden cardiac death (SCD), ventricular tachyarrhythmias (VTA) and heart failure. Genetic studies have identified causative mutations in genes encoding proteins of the intercalated disk that lead to reduced myocardial electro-mechanical stability. The term arrhythmogenic RV cardiomyopathy is somewhat misleading as biventricular involvement or isolated left ventricular (LV) involvement may be present and thus a broader term such as AVC should be preferred. The diagnosis is established on a point score basis according to the revised 2010 task force criteria utilizing imaging modalities, demonstrating fibrous replacement through biopsy, electrocardiographic abnormalities, ventricular arrhythmias and a positive family history including identification of genetic mutations. Although several risk factors for SCD such as previous cardiac arrest, syncope, documented VTA, severe RV/LV dysfunction and young age at manifestation have been identified, risk stratification still needs improvement, especially in asymptomatic family members. Particularly, the role of genetic testing and environmental factors has to be further elucidated. Therapeutic interventions include restriction from physical exercise, beta-blockers, sotalol, amiodarone, implantable cardioverter-defibrillators and catheter ablation. Life-long follow-up is warranted in symptomatic patients, but also asymptomatic carriers of pathogenic mutations.World journal of cardiology. 04/2014; 6(4):154-174.