ACR appropriateness criteria® adjuvant therapy for resected squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.
ABSTRACT Locoregional recurrence following surgical resection alone for stage III/IV head and neck cancer is common. Adjuvant radiotherapy has been shown to improve post-operative locoregional control when compared to pre-operative radiotherapy for head and neck cancers. Following surgical resection, adverse pathological features determine the need for adjuvant therapy. High-risk pathologic features include extranodal tumor spread and involved surgical margins. Other adverse pathologic features include T 3-4 tumors, perineural invasion, lymphovascular space invasion, low neck adenopathy, and multiple tumor involved cervical lymph nodes. The standard adjuvant therapies are post-operative radiation therapy or post-operative chemoradiotherapy. Post-operative chemoradiotherapy yields superior locoregional control, progression-free survival, and in some studies, overall survival compared to post-operative radiotherapy for high-risk patients in multiple randomized studies. Pooled analyses of randomized data demonstrate that post-operative concurrent chemoradiotherapy is associated with overall survival benefits for patients with involved surgical margins as well as those with extranodal tumor spread. Post-operative radiotherapy concurrent with cisplatin at 100 mg/m(2) every 21 days is the current standard chemoradiotherapy platform adjuvant head and neck cancer treatment. Post-operative radiotherapy and post-operative chemoradiotherapy radiation treatment volumes are not standardized and should be designed based on the risk of recurrence and clinically occult involvement of head and neck subsites and nodal regions. Evidence supports a post-operative radiotherapy and chemoradiotherapy radiation dose of at least 63 Gy for high-risk patients and at least 57 Gy for low risk patients.
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ABSTRACT: There is an increased risk of invasive meningococcal disease during the teenage years. A cohort of children vaccinated with a single dose of meningococcal C protein-polysaccharide conjugate (MenC) vaccine in early childhood during the U.K. catch up campaign will enter this age group during the coming decade. The duration of protective immunity against invasive meningococcal C disease provided by this single dose regimen is uncertain.A serum bactericidal titer of <1/8 correlates with susceptibility to invasive meningococcal disease. We assessed this correlate of protection in a cohort of children approximately 2 years after a single dose of vaccine. Serum bactericidal activity was assessed in 94 children (median age, 4.0 years) at a median time of 1.8 years after vaccination. Of the 94 children, 59 (63%) had a serum bactericidal titer <1/8. The data from this study add to previous evidence indicating that immunity wanes rapidly after vaccination with serogroup C meningococcal glycoconjugate vaccines in infancy and early childhood. Such observations suggest that booster doses of MenC vaccine may be needed to maintain the successful contribution this vaccine has made to child health in the United Kingdom.The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 03/2005; 24(2):128-31. · 3.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Much interest has surrounded the use of conjugate vaccines in recent years, with the development of vaccines against disease caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b, Neisseria meningitidis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. These vaccines offer the potential for safe and effective disease control, but some questions remain, particularly regarding the duration and mechanisms of protection and the longer-term impact of vaccination on carriage. In this paper, the authors use data on immunization with serogroup C meningococcal conjugate vaccines in England and Wales to develop and apply a mathematical model to investigate the direct and indirect (herd immunity) effects of a conjugate vaccine program. A realistic, age-structured, dynamic model was developed and parameterized and was fitted to epidemiologic data from England and Wales. The effects of a range of vaccine strategies, including hypothetical scenarios, were investigated. The basic reproduction number was estimated to be 1.36. Catch-up vaccination targeting teenagers generated substantial herd immunity and was important in controlling disease rapidly. The results were sensitive to changes in the assumptions regarding the method of vaccine action, particularly duration of protection and efficacy of vaccination against carriage acquisition. This model can be used to help predict the potential impact of vaccine strategies both in the United Kingdom and elsewhere.American Journal of Epidemiology 08/2005; 162(1):89-100. · 4.78 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In order to plan for the wide-scale introduction of meningococcal C conjugate (MCC) vaccine for United Kingdom children up to 18 years old, phase II trials were undertaken to investigate whether there was any interaction between MCC vaccines conjugated to tetanus toxoid (TT) or a derivative of diphtheria toxin (CRM 197) and diphtheria-tetanus vaccines given for boosting at school entry or leaving. Children (n 1,766) received a diphtheria-tetanus booster either 1 month before, 1 month after, or concurrently with one of three MCC vaccines conjugated to CRM 197 or TT. All of the MCC vaccines induced high antibody responses to the serogroup C polysaccharide that were indicative of protection. The immune response to the MCC-TT vaccine was reduced as a result of prior immunization with a tetanus-containing vaccine, but antibody levels were still well above the lower threshold for protection. Prior or simultaneous administration of a diphtheria-containing vaccine did not affect the response to MCC-CRM 197 vaccines. The immune responses to the carrier proteins were similar to those induced by a comparable dose of diphtheria or tetanus vaccine. The results also demonstrate that, for these conjugate vaccines in these age groups, both standard enzyme-linked immunosor-bent assays and those that measure high-avidity antibodies to meningococcal C polysaccharide correlated equally well with assays that measure serum bactericidal antibodies, the established serological correlate of protection for MCC vaccines. In November 1999, the United Kingdom introduced conju-gate vaccines against meningococcal serogroup C disease (MCC vaccines) into its immunization schedule for infants, with promising early reports of efficacy (18). The vaccines were also offered to all children between 1 and 17 years of age as a catch-up program that started in November 1999 and was completed within a year. The evidence of safety and immuno-genicity of the MCC vaccines in these age groups was obtained from phase II trials conducted in the United Kingdom and sponsored by the Department of Health. Following promising results of early trials using the 2-, 3-, and 4-month schedule in United Kingdom infants (16), the Department of Health spon-sored a comprehensive clinical trials program to evaluate the performance of candidate MCC vaccines in toddlers, children starting school, children leaving school, and young adults (12). One concern was the potential for interaction between theInfection and Immunity 01/2002; 70:4946-49544946. · 4.07 Impact Factor