How much do resin-based materials release? A meta-analytical approach

Leuven BIOMAT Research Cluster, Department of Conservative Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Oral Pathology and Maxillo-Facial Surgery, Catholic University of Leuven, Kapucijnenvoer 7, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium.
Dental materials: official publication of the Academy of Dental Materials (Impact Factor: 3.77). 08/2011; 27(8):723-47. DOI: 10.1016/
Source: PubMed


Resin-based dental materials are not inert in the oral environment, and may release components, initially due to incomplete polymerization, and later due to degradation. Since there are concerns regarding potential toxicity, more precise knowledge of the actual quantity of released eluates is necessary. However, due to a great variety in analytical methodology employed in different studies and in the presentation of the results, it is still unclear to which quantities of components a patient may be exposed. The objective of this meta-analytical study was to review the literature on the short- and long-term release of components from resin-based dental materials, and to determine how much (order of magnitude) of those components may leach out in the oral cavity.

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Available from: Hans Scheers, Aug 17, 2015
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    • " , amounts far below levels required to cause systemic adverse effects ( Van Landuyt et al . , 2011 ; Michelsen et al . , 2012 ) . However , due to a great variety in analytical methodology employed in different studies , there is no agreement about the quantities detected in eluates of multiple composite filling materials ( Nocca et al . , 2011 ; Van Landuyt et al . , 2011 ; Krifka et al . , 2013 ; Botsali et al . , 2014 ) and further studies are needed to quantify the exact amount of resin monomers release . According to our previous works ( Falconi et al . , 2007 ; Zago et al . , 2008 ; Teti et al . , 2009 ) and cell viability results"
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    ABSTRACT: Polymerized resin-based materials are successfully used in restorative dentistry. Despite their growing popularity, one drawback is the release of monomers from the polymerized matrix due to an incomplete polymerization or degradation processes. Released monomers are responsible for several adverse effects in the surrounding biological tissues, inducing high levels of oxidative stress. Reactive oxygen species are important signaling molecules that regulate many signal-trasduction pathways and play critical roles in cell survival, death, and immune defenses. Reactive oxygen species were recently shown to activate autophagy as a mechanism of cell survival and cell death. Although the toxicity induced by dental resin monomers is widely studied, the cellular mechanisms underlying these phenomena are still unknown. The aim of the study was to investigate the behavior of human gingival cells exposed to 2-hydroxy-ethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) to better elucidate the mechanisms of cell survival and cell death induced by resin monomers. Primary culture of human gingival cells were exposed to 3 mmol/L of HEMA or 3 mmol/L of TEGDMA for 24, 48, and 72 h. Morphological investigations were performed by transmission electron microscopy to analyze the ultrastructure of cells exposed to the monomers. The expression of protein markers for apoptosis (caspase - 3 and PARP) and autophagy (beclin - 1 and LC3B I/II) were analyzed by western blot to investigate the influence of dental resin monomers on mechanisms underlying cell death. Results showed that HEMA treatment clearly induced autophagy followed by apoptosis while the lack of any sign of autophagy activation is observed in HGFs exposed to TEGDMA. These data indicate that cells respond to monomer-induced stress by the differential induction of adaptive mechanisms to maintain cellular homeostasis.
    Frontiers in Physiology 10/2015; 6. DOI:10.3389/fphys.2015.00275 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    • "The organic resin matrix of these dental restorative materials is usually based on methacrylate monomers, such as BisGMA (bisphenol A glycol dimethacrylate ), UDMA (urethane dimethacrylate), TEGDMA (triethylene glycol dimethacrylate), and BisEMA (bisphenol A ethoxylated dimethacrylate) [1]. Recently, some new resin systems such as ormocers and silorane have been introduced as alternative to the methacrylate-based composites [2]. Composite characteristics including reactivity, viscosity, and the polymerization shrinkage as well as the mechanical properties are determined by the chemistry of the monomer [3]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives The aim of this study was the detection of putative gene expression-related effects of dental composites in conventional and interactive gingival cell systems. Methods Conventional monoculture (MC) and interactive cell systems (ICS) comprising human gingival fibroblast (HGF) and immortalized human gingival keratinocytes (IHGK) were exposed for 24 h and 7 days according to ISO10993-12:2012 manufactured eluates of different composites (Ceram X®, Filtek™ Supreme XT, Filtek™ Silorane, Fusio™ Liquid Dentin, and Vertise™ Flow). qRT-PCR-based mRNA analysis for biomarkers indicating cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, inflammation, and adhesion was performed. Apoptotic cells were quantified by annexin-V labeling. Results Due to low RNA amounts, qPCR could not be performed for Vertise™ Flow and Fusio™ Liquid Dentin at day 7. At 24 h, flowables yielded increased transcription for biomarkers of inflammation and apoptosis in IHGK, irrespective of the cell system. HGF cultures displayed lower transcription for cell adhesion markers in both cell systems. Filtek™ Supreme XT showed increased differentiation by elevated filaggrin gene expression in both cell systems for IHGK at day 7, while Filtek™ Silorane and Ceram X® yielded elevation of inflammation biomarkers in both cell types. Annexin-V labeling revealed high apoptosis rates for both flowables and Filtek™ Supreme XT for IHGK, while low rates were detected for Filtek™ Silorane and Ceram X®. Significance Among the composites evaluated, exposition of IHGK and HGF in conventional and interactive cell systems demonstrated most pronounced gene expression alterations in response to flowables, coinciding with elevated levels of apoptosis.
    Dental Materials 09/2015; 31(11). DOI:10.1016/ · 3.77 Impact Factor
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    • "To have a better understanding and assessment of their effect on the clinical and laboratory performance , adequate qualitative and quantitative data about a resin-composite constituent monomers and co-monomers is mandatory. Unfortunately, due to commercial protectionism , these data are usually either missing or not completely disclosed by the manufacturers [3]. The synthesis of new dental monomers is mainly driven by the aim of reducing polymerization shrinkage, increasing the biocompatibility of the materials, and maximizing polymerization potential. "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess the resin matrix monomer composition of selected bulk-fill and conventional resin-composite materials using reverse phase liquid chromatography coupled with electron spray ionization mass spectrometry. Six bulk-fill (SureFil SDR, Venus Bulk Fill, X-tra base, Filtek Bulk Fill flowable, Sonic Fill, and Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill) and eight conventional resin-composites (Grandioso Flow, Venus Diamond Flow, X-Flow, Filtek Supreme XTE, Grandioso, Venus Diamond, TPH Spectrum, and Filtek Z250) were tested. For assessment of resin composition and relative monomer amounts, uncured resin-composites were analysed with reverse phase liquid chromatography/electron spray ionization mass spectrometry. logP values (a measure of hydrophobicity) of detected compounds were calculated and their correlation to reverse phase liquid chromatography retention time was explored. Data were analysed with one-way ANOVA, Tukey post hoc test, Pearson correlation and regression analyses at α=0.05. The main monomers detected were BisGMA, UDMA, TEGDMA, and BisEMA. Monomers were detected at variable combinations in different materials with significantly different relative amounts. Other monomers were detected including HDDMA, DEGDMA, TCD-DI-HEA, and SDR-UDMA in Grandioso flow, X-flow, Venus Diamond, and SureFil SDR respectively. A positive correlation between logP and reverse phase liquid chromatography retention time was detected (r(2)=0.62, p=0.004). Resin composition of bulk-fill resin-composites is comparable to that of conventional materials with the exception of SureFil SDR. The relative hydrophobicity of dental monomers can be determined by their reverse phase liquid chromatography retention time. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Dental materials: official publication of the Academy of Dental Materials 04/2015; 31(6). DOI:10.1016/ · 3.77 Impact Factor
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